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Technical Paper

Low fuel consumption and low emissions~Electromechanical valve train in vehicle operation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0018
The electromechanical valve train (EMV) technology allows for a reduction in fuel consumption while operating under a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and preserves the ability to use conventional exhaust gas aftertreatment technology with a 3-way catalyst. Compared with an engine with a camshaft-driven valve train, the variable valve timing concept makes possible an additional optimization of cold start, warm-up and transient operation. In contrast with the conventionally throttled engine, optimized control of load and in-cylinder gas movement can be used for each individual cylinder and engine cycle. A load control strategy using a "Late Intake Valve Open" (LIO) provides a reduction in start-up HC emissions of approximately 60%. Due to reduced wall-wetting, the LIO control strategy improves the transition from start to idle.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Endurance and Thermo Cycle Testing for Highly Loaded HSDI Diesel Cylinder Heads

2001-10-01
2001-01-3226
Due to today's demands to reduce cost and product time to market, engineering procedures are increasingly using more sophisticated simulation techniques, instead of validation testing. Early implementation of CAE methods yield higher quality products, even with first prototypes, reducing the design iterations required to reach production quality. The strategy is to conduct specific evaluations of a realistic representation of the product while focusing on the key boundary conditions necessary to extract fatigue effects. Discussed in this paper are adequate CAE methods for early identification, evaluation and removal of conceptual and local structural weaknesses. Possible solutions gained from a computational optimization process are discussed for highly loaded HSDI diesel cylinder heads as a representative example.
Technical Paper

Future Power Plants For Cars

2001-10-01
2001-01-3192
Environmental concern demands that emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles have to improve considerably in the next 10 years. New technologies for gasoline engines, downsizing with high boosting, direct injection and fully variable valve train systems, are being developed. For Diesel engines, improved components including piezobased injectors and particle filters are expected. In the drive train new starter-generator systems as well as automated manual transmissions are being developed. In parallel alternative fuels are investigated and the use of hybrid drives and fuel cells are developed. This paper reports the progress made in the recent years and gives a comparative assessment on the different technologies with a prediction of the introduction dates and volumes into the market.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Exhaust Valve Opening in a Camless Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0376
Electromechanical valve trains in camless engines enable virtually fully variable valve timing that offers large potential for both part load fuel economy and high low end torque. Based upon the principle of a spring-mass-oscillator, the actuator stores the energy to open and close the valves in springs. However, the motion of the valves and the electromechanical actuation suffers from parasitic losses, such as friction and ohmic resistance. Besides eddy current losses, gas forces obviously play a further important role in the control of exhaust valve opening especially at high engine speeds and loads. Based on engine test bench data, computational simulations (3D CFD, gas exchange process and electromechanical system) are carried out to analyze the effects of exhaust valve gas forces on the dynamic motion of valve and actuator. The modeling approach and results of this investigation are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Variable Compression Ratio - A Design Solution for Fuel Economy Concepts

2002-03-04
2002-01-1103
The challenge to reduce fuel consumption in S.I. engines is leading to the application of new series production technologies: including direct injection and, recently, the variable valve train, both aiming at unthrottled engine operation. In addition to these technologies, turbo- or mechanical supercharging is of increasing interest because, in principle, it offers a significant potential for improved fuel economy. However, a fixed compression ratio normally leads to a compromise, in that the charged engine is more of a performance enhancement than an improver of fuel economy. Fuel efficient downsizing concepts can be realized through the application of variable compression ratio. In this paper, a variable compression ratio design solution featuring eccentric movement of the crankshaft is described. Special attention is given to the integration of this solution into the base engine.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

2003-06-23
2003-01-2264
Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Heat Recovery System for Modern Cars

2001-03-05
2001-01-1020
The fuel consumption and the emissions of modern passenger cars are highly affected by the fluid and material temperatures of the engine. Unfortunately, the high thermal efficiencies of Direct Injection (DI) Diesel and Spark Ignition (SI) engines cause in many driving situations low heat transfer to the engine components and especially to the oil and the coolant. In these conditions the normal operating temperatures are not achieved. Especially at low ambient temperatures and low engine loads the requirement of a comfortable cabin heating and a fast warm-up of engine oil and coolant cannot be satisfied simultaneously. To reach the required warm-up performance, an Exhaust Heat Recovery System (EHRS) will be demonstrated. Further design and optimization processes for modern cooling systems in fuel-efficient engines require numerical and experimental investigations of supplemental heater systems to meet all requirements under all circumstances.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Empirical Methods for Optimization of Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion

2001-03-05
2001-01-0569
Beside the traditional prediction of stresses and verification by mechanical testing the optimization of cylinder liner bore distortion is one of today's most important topics in crankcase structure development. Low bore distortion opens up potentials for optimizing the piston group. As the piston rings achieve better sealing characteristics in a low deformation cylinder liner, oil consumption and blow-by are reduced. For unchanged oil consumption and blow-by demands, engine friction and subsequently, fuel consumption could be reduced by decreasing the pre-tension of the piston rings. From the acoustical point of view an optimization of piston-slap noise is often based on an optimized bore distortion behavior. Apart from basics to the behavior of liner bore distortion the paper presents advanced analytical and empirical methods for detailed prediction, verification and optimization of bore distortion taking into account the effective engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Natural Gas Engine with Common-Rail Micro-Pilot Injection

2000-08-21
2000-01-3080
In the recent years, it has become obvious that one of the main fields of interest in alternate fuels is the public transportation sector. Natural Gas seems to be advantageous. It is available and environmentally friendly, even if the greenhouse effect of methane is considered. The operation range of vehicles running on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is poor due to the large pressure vessels, but in case of urban buses with low daily mileage this is acceptable. On the other hand, the use of an environmentally friendly fuel is favorable especially in urban areas. Although there are some advantages of Natural Gas, diesel buses dominate the market. The reason is the better part-load fuel efficiency of the Diesel principle which is superior to the Otto-cycle due to the absence of engine throttling. The efficiency levels of Spark-Ignition (SI) -type, Lean Burn Natural Gas engines are quite comparable to diesel engines during full load conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Particle Size Distribution in the Cylinder of a Common Rail DI Diesel Engine During Combustion and Expansion

2000-06-19
2000-01-1999
In the recent years diesel engine developers and manufacturers achieved a great progress in reducing the most important diesel engine pollutants, NOX and particulates. But nevertheless big efforts in diesel engine development are necessary to meet with the more stringent future emission regulations. To improve the knowledge about particle formation and emission an insight in the cylinder is necessary. By using the fast gas sampling technique samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the soot particle size distribution and the particle mass. The particle size distribution was measured by a conventional SMPS. Under steady state conditions the influence of aromatic and oxygen content in the fuel on in-cylinder particle size distribution and particle mass inside a modern 4V-CR-DI-diesel-engine were determined. After injection and ignition, mainly small soot particles were formed which grow and in the later combustion phase coagulate.
Technical Paper

Future of Combustion Engines

2006-10-16
2006-21-0024
Increasing shortages of energy resources as well as emission legislation is increasing the pressure to develop more efficient, environmentally friendly propulsion systems for vehicles. Due to its more than 125 years of history with permanent improvements, the internal combustion engine (ICE) has reached a very high development status in terms of efficiency and emissions, but also drivability, handling and comfort. Therefore, the IC engine will be the dominant propulsion system for future generations. This paper gives a survey on the present technical status and future prospects of internal combustion engines, both CI and SI engines, also including alternative fuels. In addition a brief overview of the potential of currently intensely discussed hybrid concepts is given.
Technical Paper

Applying Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) with Special Emphasis on Pollutant Formation to Simulate a DI Diesel Engine with Roof-Shaped Combustion Chamber and Tumble Charge Motion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0167
Combustion and pollutant formation in a new recently introduced Common-Rail DI Diesel engine concept with roof-shaped combustion chamber and tumble charge motion are numerically investigated using the Representative Interactive Flamelet concept (RIF). A reference case with a cup shaped piston bowl for full load operating conditions is considered in detail. In addition to the reference case, three more cases are investigated with a variation of start of injection (SOI). A surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. The underlying complete reaction mechanism comprises 506 elementary reactions and 118 chemical species. Special emphasis is put on pollutant formation, in particular on the formation of NOx, where a new technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation within the flamelet framework is applied.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cold Start Noise Improvement

2005-05-16
2005-01-2490
The European as well as U.S. market share of modern Diesel engines has increased significantly in recent years, due to their excellent torque and performance behavior combined with low fuel consumption. The overall improved noise and vibration behavior of modern Diesel engines has also contributed to this trend. Despite overall improvements in Diesel engine noise and vibration, certain aspects of Diesel engines continue to present significant challenges. One such issue is the presence of Diesel knocking that is prevalent during cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper discusses a technique used to optimize the cold start noise behavior of modern Diesel engines. The methods used in this study are based on optimizing the engine calibration to improve the vehicle interior and exterior (engine) noise, even at low ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

2005-05-16
2005-01-2514
The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1811
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Delay and -Duration of Homogeneous Charge Gasoline Engines based on In-Cylinder Flow Simulation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1796
In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0488
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently. This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Acoustics of Hybrid Vehicles

2010-06-09
2010-01-1402
The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior.
Technical Paper

A New CFD Approach for Assessment of Swirl Flow Pattern in HSDI Diesel Engines

2010-09-28
2010-32-0037
The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

2008-10-06
2008-01-2404
A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages. The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
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