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Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

2012-06-18
High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60�C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
Video

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-05-25
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

EGR and Intake Boost for Managing HCCI Low-Temperature Heat Release over Wide Ranges of Engine Speed

2007-01-23
2007-01-0051
Reaching for higher loads and improving combustion-phasing control are important challenges for HCCI research. Although HCCI engines can operate with a variety of fuels, recent research has shown that fuels with two-stage autoignition have some significant advantages for overcoming these challenges. Because the amount of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is proportional to the local equivalence ratio (ϕ), fuel stratification can be used to adjust the combustion phasing (CA50) and/or burn duration using various fuel-injection strategies. Two-stage ignition fuels also allow stable combustion even for extensive combustion-phasing retard, which reduces the knocking propensity. Finally, the LTHR reduces the required intake temperature, which increases the inducted charge mass for a given intake pressure, allowing higher fueling rates before knocking and NOx emissions become a problem. However, the amount of LTHR is normally highly dependent on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Chemical Effects of EGR and Its Constituents on HCCI Autoignition

2007-04-16
2007-01-0207
EGR can be used beneficially to control combustion phasing in HCCI engines. To better understand the function of EGR, this study experimentally investigates the thermodynamic and chemical effects of real EGR, simulated EGR, dry EGR, and individual EGR constituents (N2, CO2, and H2O) on the autoignition processes. This was done for gasoline and various PRF blends. The data show that addition of real EGR retards the autoignition timing for all fuels. However, the amount of retard is dependent on the specific fuel type. This can be explained by identifying and quantifying the various underlying mechanisms, which are: 1) Thermodynamic cooling effect due to increased specific-heat capacity, 2) [O2] reduction effect, 3) Enhancement of autoignition due to the presence of H2O, 4) Enhancement or suppression of autoignition due to the presence of trace species such as unburned or partially-oxidized hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Blending Hydrogen with Methane on Engine Operation, Efficiency, and Emissions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0474
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane blends (5% and 20% methane [by volume] in hydrogen equal to 30% and 65% methane [by mass] in hydrogen) and compare them to those of pure hydrogen as a reference. The study confirms that only minor adjustments in spark timing and injection duration are necessary for an engine calibrated and tuned for operation on pure hydrogen to run on hydrogen/methane blends.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Mixing Measurements in a Vaporizing Diesel Spray by Rayleigh Imaging

2007-04-16
2007-01-0647
This paper details the development and application of a Rayleigh imaging technique for quantitative mixing measurements in a vaporizing diesel spray under engine conditions. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel that simulated the ambient conditions in a diesel engine. Two-dimensional imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a diesel spray of n-heptane and well-characterized ambient was accomplished by using a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser sheet and a low-noise back-illuminated CCD camera. Methods to minimize interference from unwanted elastic scattering sources (e.g. windows, particles) were investigated and are discussed in detail. The simultaneous measurement of Rayleigh scattering signal from the ambient and from the diesel spray provides important benefits towards making the technique quantitative and accurate.
Technical Paper

A Qualitative Evaluation of Mixture Formation in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fuelled Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1467
In an optically-accessible single-cylinder engine fuelled with hydrogen, OH* chemiluminescence imaging and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) are used to qualitatively evaluate in-cylinder mixture formation. The experiments include measurements for engine operation with hydrogen injection in-cylinder either prior to or after intake valve closure (IVC). Pre-IVC injection is used to produce a near homogeneous mixture in-cylinder to establish a baseline comparison for post-IVC injection. To assess the effects of injection pressure on mixture formation, two injection pressures are used for post-IVC injection. For post-IVC injection with start of injection (SOI) coincident with IVC, mixture distribution is similar to pre-IVC injection and there are little differences between the two injection pressures. With retard of SOI from IVC, mixture inhomogeneities increase monotonically for both injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Injection Parameters in a Hydrogen DI Engine Using an Endoscopic Access to the Combustion Chamber

2007-04-16
2007-01-1464
In order to achieve the targets for hydrogen engines set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - a brake thermal efficiency of 45% and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions below 0.07 g/mi - while maintaining the same power density as comparable gasoline engines, researchers need to investigate advanced mixture formation and combustion strategies for hydrogen internal combustion engines. Hydrogen direct injection is a very promising approach to meeting DOE targets; however, there are several challenges to be overcome in order to establish this technology as a viable pathway toward a sustainable hydrogen infrastructure. This paper describes the use of endoscopic imaging as a diagnostic tool that allows further insight into the processes that occur during hydrogen combustion. It also addresses recent progress in the development of advanced direct-injected hydrogen internal combustion engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Morphological Examination of Nano-Particles Derived from Combustion of Cerium Fuel-Borne Catalyst Doped with Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1943
This experimental work focuses on defining the detailed morphology of secondary emission products derived from the combustion of cerium (Ce) fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) doped with diesel fuel. Cerium is often used to promote the oxidation of diesel particulates collected in diesel aftertreatment systems, such as diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However, it is suspected that the secondary products could be emitted from the vehicle tailpipe without being effectively filtered by the aftertreatment systems. In this work, these secondary emissions were identified by means of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and their properties were examined in terms of morphology and chemistry. In preparation for fuel doping, a cerium-based aliphatic organic compound solution was mixed with a low-sulfur (110 ppm) diesel fuel at 50 ppm in terms of weight concentration.
Technical Paper

Operational Characteristics of Oxygenate-Water Fuel Blends Studied in an Optical DI Diesel Engine with Simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2007-07-23
2007-01-2017
Engine combustion strategies that preserve high cycle efficiency while minimizing engine-out pollutant emissions are the focus of major research efforts around the world. Such high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) strategies typically employ compression ignition of a charge that exhibits an elevated degree of fuel/air premixing and/or dilution with combustion products. Prior studies have shown that a highly dilute, mixing-controlled combustion strategy using a high-cetane, oxygenated fuel can achieve HECC while avoiding the control, high-load knock, and light-load incomplete combustion difficulties that are often experienced with approaches that use a high degree of charge premixing. On the other hand, employing high dilution levels (e.g., by using large amounts of cooled exhaust gas recirculation, EGR) can place excessive burdens on engine heat exchangers and air-handling systems.
Technical Paper

Efficiency-Optimized Operating Strategy of a Supercharged Hydrogen-Powered Four-Cylinder Engine for Hybrid Environments

2007-07-23
2007-01-2046
As an energy carrier, hydrogen has the potential to deliver clean and renewable power for transportation. When powered by hydrogen, internal combustion engine technology may offer an attractive alternative to enable the transition to a hydrogen economy. Port-injected hydrogen engines generate extremely low emissions and offer high engine efficiencies if operated in a lean combustion strategy. This paper presents experimental data for different constant air/fuel ratio engine combustion strategies and introduces variable air/fuel ratio strategies for engine control. The paper also discusses the shift strategy to optimize fuel economy and contrasts the different engine control strategies in the conventional vehicle environment. The different strategies are evaluated on the urban driving cycle, then engine behaviors are explained and fuel economy is estimated. Finally, the paper projects the potential of hybridization and discusses trends in powertrain cycle efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Reforming Gasoline: All Components are Not Created Equal

2001-05-07
2001-01-1915
Gasoline is a complex fuel. Many of the constituents of gasoline that are beneficial for the internal combustion engine (ICE) are expected to be challenging for on-board reformers in fuel-cell vehicles. To address these issues, the autothermal reforming of gasoline and individual components of gasoline has been investigated. The results indicate that aromatic components require higher temperatures and longer contact times to reform than paraffinic components. Napthenic components require higher temperatures to reform, but can be reformed at higher space velocities than paraffinic components. The effects of sulfur are dependent on the catalyst. These results suggest that further evolution of gasoline could reduce the demands on the reformer and provide a better fuel for a fuel-cell vehicle.
Technical Paper

Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

2001-05-14
2001-01-2060
The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work.
Technical Paper

Extinction Measurements of In-Cylinder Soot Deposition in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1296
The combustion process in diesel engines deposits soot on the in-cylinder surfaces. Previous works have suggested that these soot deposits eventually break off during cylinder blow-down and the exhaust stroke and contribute significantly to exhaust soot emissions. In order to better understand this potential pathway to soot emissions, the authors recently investigated combusting fuel-jet/wall interactions in a diesel engine. This work, published as a companion paper, showed how soot escaped from the combusting fuel jet and was brought in close proximity to the wall so that it could become a deposit. The current study extends this earlier work with laser-extinction measurements of the soot-deposition rate in the same single-cylinder, heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Measurements were made by passing the beam of a CW-diode laser through a window in the piston bowl rim that was in-line with one of the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Diffusion-Flame / Wall Interactions in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1295
Over the past decade, laser diagnostics have improved our understanding of many aspects of diesel combustion. However, interactions between the combusting fuel jet and the piston-bowl wall are not well understood. In heavy-duty diesel engines, with typical fuels, these interactions occur with the combusting vapor-phase region of the jet, which consists of a central region containing soot and other products of rich-premixed combustion, surrounded by a diffusion flame. Since previous work has shown that the OH radical is a good marker of the diffusion flame, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH was applied to an investigation of the diffusion flame during wall interaction. In addition, simultaneous OH PLIF and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) soot imaging was applied to investigate the likelihood for soot deposition on the bowl wall.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Comparison of Two Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) - Honda Insight and Toyota Prius

2001-03-05
2001-01-1335
Two limited-production hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) - a 1988 Japanese model Toyota Prius and a 2000 Honda Insight - were tested at Argonne National Laboratory to collect data from vehicle component and systems operation. The test data are used to analyze operation and efficiency and to help validate computer simulation models. Both HEVs have FTP fuel economy greater than 45 miles per gallon and also have attributes very similar to those of conventional gasoline vehicles, even though each HEV has a unique powertrain configuration and operation control strategy. The designs and characteristics of these vehicles are of interest because they represent production technology with all the compromises for production included. This paper will explore both designs, their control strategies, and under what conditions high fuel economy was achieved.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification for Low-Load HCCI Combustion: Performance & Fuel-PLIF Measurements

2007-10-29
2007-01-4130
Fuel stratification has been investigated as a means of improving the low-load combustion efficiency in an HCCI engine. Several stratification techniques were examined: different GDI injectors, increased swirl, and changes in injection pressure, to determine which parameters are effective for improving the combustion efficiency while maintaining NOx emissions below U.S. 2010 limits. Performance and emission measurements were obtained in an all-metal engine. Corresponding fuel distribution measurements were made with fuel PLIF imaging in a matching optically accessible engine. The fuel used was iso-octane, which is a good surrogate for gasoline. For an idle fueling rate (ϕ = 0.12), combustion efficiency was improved substantially, from 64% to 89% at the NOx limit, using delayed fuel injection with a hollow-cone injector at an injection pressure of 120 bar.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Spatial Fuel Distribution Using a Linear-Eddy Model

2007-10-29
2007-01-4131
Prior HCCI optical engine experiments utilizing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of stratified fuel-air mixtures have demonstrated the utility of probability density function (PDF) statistics for correlating mixture preparation with combustion. However, PDF statistics neglect all spatial details of in-cylinder fuel distribution. The current computational paper examines the effects of spatial fuel distribution on combustion using a novel combination of a 3-D CFD model with a 1-D linear-eddy model of turbulent mixing. In the simulations, the spatial coarseness of initial fuel distribution prior to the start of heat release is varied while keeping PDF statistics constant. Several cases are run, and as the initial mixture is made coarser, combustion phasing monotonically advances due to high local equivalence ratios that persist longer. The effect of turbulent mixing is more complex.
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