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Technical Paper

Modelling the Effects of Seat Belts on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Risk in the Rollover of a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV)

The aims of this study are to investigate the responses of a Hybrid III dummy and a human body model in rollover crashes of an SUV, and to assess the effect of seat belts on occupant kinematics in rollover events. A SAEJ2114 rollover test of a 1994 Ford Explorer for two front row dummies with an inflatable tubular structure (ITS) is reconstructed and validated in MADYMO. By removing the ITS, the simulations of the Hybrid III dummy occupants with and without seat belts are obtained. By replacing the dummy models with human body models, with and without seat belts, two other combinations are also modelled. The kinematics and injury risks of two kinds of occupant models are compared and evaluated. Significant differences exist in the motions, and injury levels of the dummies and human body models with and without seat belts. Seat belts can significantly mitigate against occupant ejection.