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Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2020
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

2007-10-29
2007-01-4058
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Additives and Dilution Conditions on the Formation and Emission of Exhaust Particulate Matter from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-2018
Experiments were performed to measure the number-weighted particle size distributions emitted from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 15 - 100 km/hr. Dilution of the exhaust aerosol was carried out using a two-stage dilution system in which the first stage dilution occurs as a free jet. Particle size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Generally speaking, the presence of the additives did not have a strong, consistent influence on the particle emissions from this engine. The polyether amine demonstrated a reduction in particle number concentration as compared to unadditized base fuel.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

2008-04-14
2008-01-0021
A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of HCCI Using a Single Cylinder Four-stroke SI Engine with Modified Valve Timing

2000-10-16
2000-01-2870
A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
Technical Paper

Study of Cycle-By-Cycle Air-to-Fuel Ratio Determined from the Exhaust Gas Composition and a Novel Fast Response Device Based on a Wide Band Lambda Sensor

2008-10-06
2008-01-2439
This paper describes cyclic Air/Fuel ratio (AFR) measurements carried out with a novel device (fUEGO) based on a production Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor, but modified to give an improved frequency response. The results are compared to AFR calculated from a fast CO/CO2 analyser and a fast response flame ionization detector (FID). The direct comparison of the two different methods for determining the cyclic AFR reveals that the electrochemical device is in reasonable agreement with the more complex carbon balance method and can provide reliable cyclic AFR measurements with a reduced requirement for equipment and data post processing. The fUEGO however is sensitive to elevated levels of uHC's (unburned hydrocarbons) during misfires or partial burns and readings during such situations usually show deviations compared to the carbon balance method.
Technical Paper

Study of Steady State and Transient EGR Behaviour of a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2438
It is well known that accurate EGR control is paramount to controlling engine out emissions during steady state and transient operation of a diesel engine. The direct measurement of EGR is however non-trivial and especially difficult in engines with no external EGR control where the intake manifold CO2 levels can be measured more readily. This work studies the EGR behaviour in a medium duty diesel engine with a passive EGR rebreathing strategy for steady state and transient operation. High speed (response time ∼1ms) in-cylinder sampling using modified GDI valves is coupled with high frequency response analysers to measure the cyclic in-cylinder CO2, from which the EGR rate is deduced. It was found that controlling the EGR using the passive rebreathing strategy during certain combined speed and load transients is challenging, causing high smoke and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulating a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with a DEE/EtOH Blend

2006-04-03
2006-01-1362
We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Effects on HCCI Operating Range: Experiments with Primary Reference Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1673
Results from a large set of HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane are presented and discussed in this paper. The experiments are designed to scrutinize fuel reactivity effects on the operating range of an HCCI engine. The fuel effects on upper and lower operating limits are measured respectively by the maximum pressure rise rate inside the cylinder and the stability of engine operation as determined by cycle-to-cycle variations in IMEP. Another set of experiments that examine the intake air heating effects on HCCI engine performance, exhaust emissions and operating envelopes is also presented. The effects of fuel reactivity and intake air heating on the HCCI ranges are demonstrated by constructing the operating envelopes for the different test fuels and intake temperatures.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Flamelet Combustion Model to Flame Curvature for IC Engine Application

2017-09-04
2017-24-0038
Engines with reduced emissions and improved efficiency are of high interest for road transport. However, achieving these two goals is challenging and various concepts such as PFI/DI/HCCI/PCCI are explored by engine manufacturers. The computational fluid dynamics is becoming an integral part of modern engine development programme because this method provides access to in-cylinder flow and thermo-chemical processes to develop a closer understanding to tailor tumble and swirling motions to construct green engines. The combustion modelling, its accuracy and robustness play a vital role in this. Out of many modelling methods proposed in the past flamelet based methods are quite attractive for SI engine application. In this study, FlaRe (Flamelets revised for physical consistencies) approach is used to simulate premixed combustion inside a gasoline PFI single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine. This approach includes a parameter representing the effects of flame curvature on the burning rate.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Simulation Using a Flamelet Based Combustion Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2402
Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an integral part in analysing engine in-cylinder processes since it provides detailed information on the flow and combustion, which helps to find design improvements during the development of modern engine concepts. The predictive capability of simulation tools depends largely on the accuracy, fidelity and robustness of the various models used, in particular concerning turbulence and combustion. In this study, a flamelet model with a physics based closure for the progress variable dissipation rate is applied for the first time to a spark ignited IC engine. The predictive capabilities of the proposed approach are studied for one operating condition of a gasoline port fuel injected single-cylinder, four-stroke spark ignited full-metal engine running at 3,500 RPM close to full load (10 bar BMEP) at stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-1145
Experiments were performed to measure the average and time-resolved particle number emissions and number-weighted particle size distributions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 13 - 90 km/hr. Particle number emissions were measured using a TSI 3020 condensation nucleus counter, and size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Average polydisperse number concentration was found to increase from 1.1 × 108 particles/cm3 at 13 km/hr to 2.8 × 108 particles/cm3 at 70 km/hr. Under a closed-loop, stoichiometric homogeneous charge operating mode at 90 km/hr, number emissions fell to 9.3 × 107 particles/cm3 (at all other operating conditions, the engine was in a lean stratified charge operating mode).
Technical Paper

A Turbulent Combustion Model for a Stratified Charged, Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0275
A turbulent combustion model is described for SI engines with large variations in mixture strength. The model is for a single gas phase fluid at high Reynolds number and treats combustion in the laminar flamelet regime, which is characterized by high Damkholer and low Karlovitz numbers. An assumed probability density function (pdf) approach is used to extract expressions for mean quantities of interest, which are parameterized on the progress variable and mixture fraction variables. A double delta function pdf is used for the reaction progress variable and a beta function pdf is used for the mixture fraction. The reaction rate term in the progress variable equation is closed using an algebraic expression, which incorporates the effects of mixture strength, pressure and temperature on laminar flame speed. The model is implemented in two versions of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code.
Journal Article

Fundamental Aspects of Jet Ignition for Natural Gas Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0097
Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.
Technical Paper

Fast Response CO2 Sensor for Automotive Exhaust Gas Analysis

1999-10-25
1999-01-3477
A fast response sensor for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for laboratory research and tested on a spark ignition engine. The sensor uses the well known infra-red absorption technique with a miniaturized detection system and short capillary sampling tubes, giving a time constant of approximately 5 milliseconds; this is sufficiently fast to observe changes in CO2 levels on a cycle-by-cycle basis under normal operating conditions. The sensor is easily located in the exhaust system and operates continuously. The sensor was tested on a standard production four cylinder spark-ignition engine to observe changes in CO2 concentration in exhaust gas under steady state and transient operating conditions. The processed sensor signal was compared to a standard air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor in the exhaust stream and the results are presented here. The high frequency response CO2 measurements give new insights into both engine and catalyst transient operation.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Truck Side-Skirt Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-1593
The underbody of a truck is responsible for an appreciable portion of the vehicle’s aerodynamic drag, and thus its fuel consumption. This paper investigates experimentally the flow around side-skirts, a common underbody aerodynamic device which is known to be effective at reducing vehicle drag. A full, 1/10 scale European truck model is used. The chassis of the model is designed to represent one that would be found on a typical trailer, and is fully reconfigurable. Testing is carried out in a water towing tank, which allows the correct establishment of the ground flow and rotating wheels. Optical access into the underbody is possible through the clear working section of the facility. Stereoscopic and planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) set-ups are used to provide both qualitative images of and quantitative information on the flow field.
Journal Article

Analysis of In-Cylinder Hydrocarbons in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Gas Chromatography

2009-11-02
2009-01-2698
Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Gas Flow Field within a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

2015-09-01
2015-01-2009
In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Turbulent Flame Speed Combustion Model on Burn Rate Simulation of Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0588
This work presents turbulent premixed combustion modeling in spark ignition engines using G-equation based turbulent combustion model. In present study, a turbulent flame speed expression proposed and validated in recent years by two co-authors of this paper is applied to the combustion simulation of spark ignition engines. This turbulent flame speed expression has no adjustable parameters and its constants are closely tied to the physics of scalar mixing at small scales. Based on this flame speed expression, a minor modification is introduced in this paper considering the fact that the turbulent flame speed changes to laminar flame speed if there is no turbulence. This modified turbulent flame speed expression is implemented into Ford in-house CFD code MESIM (multi-dimensional engine simulation), and is validated extensively.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
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