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Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

Design Considerations & Characterization Test Methods for Activated Carbon Foam Hydrocarbon Traps in Automotive Air Induction Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1429
As OEMs race to build their sales fleets to meet ever more stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) mobile source evaporative emissions requirements, new technologies are emerging to control pollution. Evaporative emissions emanating from sources up-stream in the induction flow and venting through the ducts of the engine air induction system (EIS) need to be controlled in order classify a salable vehicle as a Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) in the state of California. As other states explore adopting California's pollution control standards, demand for emissions control measures in the induction system is expected to increase. This paper documents some of the considerations of designing an adsorbent evaporative emissions device in to a 2007 production passenger car for the North American and Asian markets. This new evaporative emissions device will be permanently installed in the vehicle's air cleaner cover without requiring service for 150K miles (expected vehicle life).
Technical Paper

A Real Time Statistical Method for Engine Knock Detection

2007-04-16
2007-01-1507
The traditional method of engine knock detection is to compare the knock intensity with a predetermined threshold. The calibration of this threshold is complex and difficult. A statistical knock detection method is proposed in this paper to reduce the effort of calibration. This method dynamically calculates the knock threshold to determine the knock event. Theoretically, this method will not only adapt to different fuels but also cope with engine aging and engine-to-engine variation without re-calibration. This method is demonstrated by modeling and evaluation using real-time engine dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

GENPAD® - Ergonomic Packaging

2002-03-04
2002-01-1241
GENPAD® is a knowledge-based, three-dimensional modeling computer tool developed by Visteon to create occupant-friendly interiors. GENPAD quickly and easily produces zones to evaluate ergonomic aspects of vehicle interiors such as reach, clearance, vision, and reflection. These zones are produced from automated design studies based on experience and engineering standards accepted by the automotive industry. Without GENPAD, a single study requires an experienced engineer 4-6 hours to complete. Multiple studies require several engineers weeks to perform. The methods used are also error-prone due to complex instructions. To overcome these challenges, GENPAD provides over 50 ergonomic packaging studies that produce accurate results in minutes, not weeks, every time.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Testing Methodology for Automotive Concept Product Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-1176
The process for accurately estimating product reliability early in the development process can be a difficult and costly task. Traditional methods like Reliability Prediction Models and Life Testing Strategies yield beneficial results when relative information is known about the product that is to be analyzed. When there is minimal information known (prior failure rates…) such a new concept design these above reliability methods have limitations. For these cases a Virtual Testing Strategies have proven to yield valuable results. This paper will demonstrate a reliability analysis procedure for a new automotive concept design. This analysis procedure composes of a mathematical model, model validation, parameter diagram, design of experiment (DOE), response surface, and optimization.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Useful Life Testing and Field Correlation Methods

2002-03-04
2002-01-1175
The purpose of this paper is to present a common sense practical method for establishing and demonstrating reliability objectives. In particular, this paper will: describe an operational definition of “useful life”, describe an accelerated laboratory test procedure for demonstrating that products meet the useful life objective, and describe a method for demonstrating correlation between customer usage and laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

An Integrated System Life Cycle-Based Risk Management Methodology

2002-03-04
2002-01-0145
A new risk management method, the System Integrated Life Cycle Risk Management Methodology (SILC RMM), is based on systems engineering principles and is compatible with current standards. The SILC method, created by automotive engineers, addresses shortcomings with FMEA and other risk management (RM) methods, and integrates the FMEA and risk management functions into day-to-day engineering project activities. The SILC approach accommodates technology, cost, schedule, environmental and safety risks throughout the systems engineering project life cycle - from conception to recycle. It allows direct integration of RM information with system and project information for more efficient and effective utilization of resources and optimal overall risk management.
Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0041
This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamic Simulation of Steering Gear Systems With Three-Dimensional Surface Contacts

2006-02-14
2006-01-1960
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
Technical Paper

Software Validation a Vital Activity for a Mature Product Development Organization

2005-11-22
2005-01-4168
Software is today one of the most important components of electronic products. The capture and validation of the requirements makes a difference if the product will fulfill the customer's expectations or generate enormous frustration. The correct implementation of software validation makes the Product Development Organization more mature and reliable. Software validation is an opportunity for the product development team to identify if the requirements and customer expectations were achieved. It is also used to identify the risks and possible improvements to the product. Software testing is one element of a brooder topic that is often referred to as verification and validation (V&V). Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

On the Use of BEA with Engine Simulation as an Input to Predict Air Induction Inlet Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2350
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Maximum Dilution Limit Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2005-10-24
2005-01-3751
This paper presents a combustion stability index derived from an in-cylinder ionization signal to control the engine maximum EGR limit. Different from the existing approaches that use the ionization signal values to gauge how much EGR was added during the combustion, the proposed method concentrates on using the ionization signal duration and its stochastic properties to evaluate the end result of EGR on combustion stability. When the duration index or indexes are higher than pre-determined values, the EGR limit is set. The dynamometer engine test results have shown promise for closed loop EGR control of spark ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Limit Control and Its Application to Knock Limit Control Using Ionization Feedback

2005-04-11
2005-01-0018
Spark timing of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine is often limited by engine knock in the advanced direction. The ability to operate the engine at its advanced (borderline knock) spark limit is the key for improving output power and fuel economy. Due to combustion cycle-to-cycle variations, IC engine combustion behaves similar to a random process and so does the engine performance criteria, such as IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure), and knock intensity. The combustion stability measure COVariance of IMEP assumes the IMEP is a random process. Presently, the spark limit control of IC engines is deterministic in nature. The controller does not utilize any stochastic information associated with control parameters such as knock intensity for borderline spark limit control. This paper proposes a stochastic limit control strategy for borderline knock control. It also develops a simple stochastic model for evaluating the proposed stochastic controller.
Technical Paper

The Difficulties to Implement a Product Development Process

2007-11-28
2007-01-2779
The target of all product development engineering departments is to design products efficiently. To do that the organizations needs a solid development process that drives the product development team to achieve the performance, cost, quality, reliability and manufacturability objectives. If the objective and the way to achieve it are so clear, why is the implementation of a “product development” process not easy? The answer lies in the way the process is implemented. In most organizations is so dramatic and painful because the upper management team is not engaged to promote these changes. The concepts and benefits of these changes are not fully comprehended by the engineers and their support staff.
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0325
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
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