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Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for Different EGR-Rates by an Extinction Method

The formation of soot during the first phase and the oxidation of soot during the later phase of the combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine have been investigated in detail by an extinction method. The experiments were performed in a 1.9 l near-production high-speed four-cylinder in-line direct-injection diesel engine for passenger cars for different rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and for different fuels. The measurements result in crank angle resolved and cycle-averaged soot mass concentrations in the piston bowl and the combustion chamber. The results show that with increasing EGR-rates the amount of soot formed is increased only slightly but the amount of soot oxidized during combustion decreases significantly. This is assumed to be the main reason for the increase of soot in the exhaust gas with increasing EGR-rates.
Technical Paper

European Diesel Research IDEA-Experimental Results from DI Diesel Engine Investigations

Within the European research programme IDEA (Integrated Diesel European Action), detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental phenomena of the Diesel engine like flow, injection, mixture formation, auto-ignition, combustion and pollutant formation were carried out to improve knowledge and to set up models for a simulation code. Because this basic research of the Diesel combustion process is very complex and cost intensive, it was carried out jointly by the JRC (Joint Research Committee), an association of European car manufacturers (Fiat, Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo and Volkswagen). The activities were also subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities and the Swedish National Board of Technical Development. The results of the research work will support the design of even more efficient engines and the further reduction of soot and NOx emissions and will also enable the companies to reduce time and cost in developing new engines.