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Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Embedded Software Tools Enable Hybrid Vehicle Architecture Design and Optimization

2010-10-19
2010-01-2308
This presentation focuses on several examples of partnerships between tool suppliers and embedded software developers in which state-of-the-art tools are used to optimize a variety of electric and hybrid vehicle architectures. Projects with Automotive OEMs, Tier One Suppliers as well as with academic institutions will be described. Due to the growing complexity in multiple electronic control units (“ECUs”) inter-communicating over numerous network bus systems, combined with the challenge of controlling and maintaining charges for electric motors, vehicle development would be impossible without use of increasingly sophisticated tools. Hybrid drive trains are much more complex than conventional ones, they have at least one degree of freedom more.
Technical Paper

DSP-Based Automotive Sensor Signal Generation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

1994-03-01
940185
Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation is a technology where the actual vehicles, engines or other components are replaced by a real-time simulation in a simulation computer, based on a mathematical model. That simulation reads ECU (Electronic Control Unit) output signals which would normally go to actuators. On the other hand the simulation must output the sensor signals which make the ECU ‘think’ it controls a real system. Generating these signals can be very difficult. Signals may be complex, depend on on-line computed variables, and be required to be output at high timing resolution. This paper describes the problems and presents a solution which employs high-performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to generate such signals on-line by Direct-Digital-Synthesis (DDS).
Technical Paper

Behavior Modeling Tools in an Architecture-Driven Development Process - From Function Models to AUTOSAR

2007-04-16
2007-01-0507
This paper will first introduce and classify the basic principles of architecture-driven software development and will briefly sketch the presumed development process. This background information is then used to explain extensions which enable current behavior modeling and code generation tools to operate as software component generators. The generation of AUTOSAR software components using dSPACE's production code generator TargetLink is described as an example.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Networked Electronics at Ford

2005-04-11
2005-01-1658
The number of electrical and electronic components in modern vehicles is constantly growing. Increasingly, functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). While suppliers themselves are responsible for ensuring that individual ECUs function properly, only the OEM can test distributed functions. Moreover, with the volume of testing steadily growing, automated sequences are absolutely essential. To test electronic networks in the vehicle, Ford Europe is using platform-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation with integrated failure insertion. The company is setting up a uniform, project-independent procedure, from standardized test definition to automated test sequences on a virtual vehicle, right through to structured evaluation.
Technical Paper

How to Do Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Right

2005-04-11
2005-01-1657
Not only is the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles constantly increasing, the software of the ECUs is also becoming more complex. Both make testing a central task within the development of automotive electronics. Testing ECUs in real vehicles is time-consuming and costly, and comes very late in the automotive development process. It is therefore increasingly being replaced by laboratory tests using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions are already undergoing certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. To achieve the highest quality, testing must be done as early as possible within the development process. This paper describes the various test phases during the development of automotive electronics (from single function testing to network testing of all the ECUs of a vehicle).
Technical Paper

Advances in Rapid Control Prototyping - Results of a Pilot Project for Engine Control -

2005-04-11
2005-01-1350
The technological development in the field of automotive electronics is proceeding at almost break-neck speed. The functions being developed and integrated into cars are growing in complexity and volume. With the increasing number and variety of sensors and actuators, electronics have to handle a greater amount of data, and the acquisition and generation of I/O signals is also growing in complexity, for example, in engine management applications. Moreover, intelligent and complex algorithms need to be processed in a minimum of time. This all intensifies the need for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP), a proven method of decisively speeding up the model-based software development process of automotive electronic control units (ECUs) [1],[2]. All these demanding tasks, including connecting sensors and actuators to the RCP system, need to be performed within a standard prototyping environment.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Production Quality Code for ECUs

1999-03-01
1999-01-1168
This paper describes a new production code generator that meets both the requirements of code developers for efficient and reliable production code, as well as the desire of system engineers to establish a control design process based on simulation models that double as executable specifications for the ECU software. The production code generator supports automatic scaling, generates optimized fixed-point C code for microcontrollers like the Motorola 683xx, Siemens C16x, and Hitachi SH-2, and produces ASAP2 [1] calibration information. Benchmark results show that the autogenerated code can match or even exceed the efficiency of typical handwritten production code. Code quality is assured by design and by systematic, automatic, and extremely comprehensive test procedures.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Systems for Electric Motors in Advanced Powertrain Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0498
Electric drives are growing in importance in automotive applications, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and in the vehicle dynamics area (steering systems, etc.). The challenges of real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation and testing of electric drives are addressed in this paper. In general, three different interface levels between the electric drive and the hardware-inthe-loop system can be distinguished: the signal level (1), the electrical level (2) and the mechanical level (3). These interface levels, as well as modeling and I/O-related aspects of electric drives and power electronics devices, are discussed in detail in the paper. Finally, different solutions based on dSPACE simulator technology are presented, for both hybrid vehicle and steering applications.
Technical Paper

Key Factors for Successful Integration of Automatic Code Generation in Series Production Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0154
Model-based development and autocoding have become common practice in the automotive industry over the past few years. The industry is using these methods to tackle a situation in which complexity is constantly growing and development times are constantly decreasing, while the safety requirements for the software stay the same or even increase. The debate is no longer whether these methods are useful, but rather on the conditions for achieving optimum results with them. From the experiences made during the last decade this paper shows some of the key factors helping to achieve success when introducing or extending the deployment of automatic code generation in a model-based design process.
Technical Paper

Simulating and Testing In-Vehicle Networks by Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

2008-04-14
2008-01-1220
Validating control units with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulators is an established method for quality enhancements in automotive software. It is primarily used for testing applications, but in view of increased networking between electronic control units, it can also be used for testing communication scenarios. The testing of electronic control unit (ECU) communication often includes only positive testing. Simple communication nodes are used for this, and communication analyzers are used for verifying communication up to the physical level. However, it is not only an ECU's positive communication behavior that has to be tested, but also its correct behavior in the event of communication errors. In HIL communication scenarios, it is not only possible to emulate the missing bus nodes (restbus simulation) with a link to real-time signals; correct ECU behavior in the event of communication errors can also be tested.
Technical Paper

Modular Multibody Approach for Real-Time Simulation of Vehicle-Trailer Combinations

2010-04-12
2010-01-0720
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation in the development and test process of vehicle dynamics controllers requires a real-time tractor-trailer simulation model. The hitch coupling must be numerically stable to ensure real-time simulation for various driving maneuvers, particularly at the vehicle's handling limits. This paper presents a robust implementation of tractor-trailer coupling. The equation of motion is formed using a novel formulation which is a combination of Jourdain's Principle and the Articulated Body Algorithm. The paper shows that a robust model for a real-time tractor-trailer simulation can be achieved with the proposed method. Moreover, the approach presented is suitable for modular modeling, is successfully implemented and can also be used as a basis for flexible system definition with an adjustable number of trailer axles.
Journal Article

Applying Model-Based Design and Automatic Production Code Generation to Safety-Critical System Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0747
Model-based software development and automatic code generation have become increasingly established in recent years. The automotive industry has widely adopted and successfully deployed these methods in many different series production programs worldwide. This brought various benefits, such as a reduction in development times, improved quality due to more precise specifications, and early verification and validation by means of simulation. At the same time, more and more safety-related and safety-critical systems have been - and will be -introduced into modern vehicles. Common examples are active front steering, adaptive cruise-control, and integrated chassis control. This leads to the question, if and how model-based design and automatic production code generation can be applied to the development of safety-critical systems.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bench for the Validation of Complex ECU Networks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0801
Due to the continuously increasing number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern cars, and their growing complexity, automated tests not only of single ECUs but also of interconnected ECUs have become an important step in the development of automotive electronics. These tasks require new test systems. This paper describes the problems engineers face when developing and testing today's car electronics, as well as a high-end hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tool set (hardware, software, models) applied to the testing of four networked ECUs for engine management, vehicle dynamics control, automatic transmission, and an active suspension system. The tool set comprises general features needed for HIL tests, like automated code generation for real-time models using MATLAB/Simulink and a comprehensive set of dedicated hardware (processor and I/O hardware).
Technical Paper

Hybrid Drivetrain Simulation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0455
This paper describes challenges and possible solution of hybrid electrical vehicles test systems with a special focus on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench. The degree of novelty of this work can be seen in the fact that development and test of ECU for hybrid electrical powertrains can move more and more from mechanical test benches with real automotive components to HIL test systems. The challenging task in terms of electrical interface between an electric motor ECU and an HIL system and necessary real-time capable simulation models for electric machines have been investigated and partly solved. Even cell balancing strategies performed by battery management systems (BMU) can be developed and tested using HIL technology with battery simulation models and a precise cell voltage simulation on electrical level.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0443
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Technical Paper

Advantages and Challenges of Closed-Loop HIL Testing for Commercial and Off-Highway Vehicles

2009-10-06
2009-01-2841
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is used by commercial vehicle original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in several fields of electronics development. HIL tests are a part of the standard development process for engine and machine control systems. For electronic control units (ECUs), not only the HIL test of the hardware but also the controller software validation is very important. For hardware diagnostics validation, a dynamic simulation of the real system could be omitted and an open-loop test of the controller is sufficient in most cases. For most controller software validation including OBD (on-board diagnosis) tests, detailed but real-time capable models have to be used. This article describes the needs and challenges of models in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) based testing, taking into account the wide range of commercial and off-highway vehicles.
Journal Article

Engine in the Loop: Closed Loop Test Bench Control with Real-Time Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0219
The complexity of automobile powertrains grows continuously. At the same time, development time and budget are limited. Shifting development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) increases the efficiency by utilizing test benches instead of prototype vehicles (road-to-rig approach). Early system verification of powertrain components requires a closed-loop coupling to real-time simulation models, comparable to hardware-in-the-loop testing (HiL). The international research project Advanced Co-Simulation Open System Architecture (ACOSAR) has the goal to develop a non-proprietary communication architecture between real-time and non-real-time systems in order to speed up the commissioning process and to decrease the monetary effort for testing and validation. One major outcome will be a generic interface for coupling different simulation tools and real-time systems (e.g. HiL simulators or test benches).
Technical Paper

Hybrid Vehicle Model Development using ASM-AMESim-Simscape Co-Simulation for Real-Time HIL Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-0932
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a real-time testing process that has been proven indispensable for the modern vehicle dynamics, powertrain, chassis and body systems electronic controls development. The high quality standards and robustness of the control algorithms can only be met by means of detailed vehicle plant simulation models. In the last few years, several efforts have been made to develop detailed plant models. Several tools for the vehicle modeling are available in the market and each tool has different and distinct advantages. This paper addresses ways that dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) can support the model-based development processes. Additional modern software tools that were used in connection with the ASM are LMS AMESim and Mathworks SimDriveline (of Simscape). ASM is an open Matlab/Simulink model environment used for offline PC based simulation and online real-time platform HIL testing.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing in the Context of ISO 26262

2012-04-16
2012-01-0035
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is now a standard component in the vehicle development process as a method for testing electronic control unit (ECU) software. HIL simulation is used for all aspects of development, naturally including safety-relevant functions and systems. This applies to all test tasks (from function testing to release tests, testing a single ECU or an ECU network, and so on) and also to different vehicle domains: The drivetrain, vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, interior/comfort systems and infotainment are all tested by HIL simulation. At the same time, modern vehicles feature more and more safety-related systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control, Electronic Stability Program, Power Assisted Steering, and Integrated Chassis Management.
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