1 A methodology for correctly matching trap systems to the vehicle types was developed within the scope of a feasibility study to retrofit the entire Swiss fleet of on-road HDV. Representative test vehicles from 11 vehicle categories were equipped with high capacity data loggers during a period of 4-6 weeks. Statistical evaluation of exhaust temperatures indicate that data on averages, peaks and frequency distributions alone can be misleading, because these tend to over-estimate the available exhaust enthalpy. Analysis of dwell time intervals, at certain temperature levels, is a better method to assess the energy available for the regeneration. Such verification of duty cycles is indispensable before retrofitting traps and choosing either active or passive regeneration systems.
Most particulate traps efficiently retain soot of diesel engine exhaust but the potential hazard to form secondary emissions has to be controlled. The Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) regeneration is mainly supported by metal additives or metallic coatings. Certain noble or transition metals can support the formation of toxic secondary emissions such as Dioxins, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Nitro-PAH or other volatile components. Furthermore, particulate trap associated with additive metals can penetrate through the filter system or coating metals can be released from coated systems. The VERT test procedure was especially developed to assess the potential risks of a formation of secondary pollutants in the trap. The present study gives an overview to the VERT test procedure. Aspects of suitability of different fuel additives and coating metals will be discussed and examples of trap and additive induced formation of toxic secondary emissions will be presented.
Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) powered by small diesel engines emit high PM and cause locally high PM levels. The concomitant health risks spurred efforts to devise a cost-effective curtailment of these emissions. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) of ceramic honeycomb construction very efficiently trap PM emissions, even ultrafines in the lung penetrating size range of below 300 nm. A fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can facilitate trap regeneration, by lowering the exhaust temperature requirements, but cannot alone guarantee reliable regeneration under all operating conditions of the TRU. A Swiss development team together with industrial partners therefore developed a fully automatic active regeneration system for the California Air Resources Board.
New Diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, with combined DPF*) and deNOx (mostly SCR) systems represent a very important step towards zero emission Diesel fleet. These combined systems are already offered today by several suppliers for retrofitting of HD vehicles. Reliable quality standards for those quite complex systems are urgently needed to enable decisions of several authorities. The present report informs about the international network project VERT *) dePN (de-activation, de-contamination, disposal of particles and NOx), which was started in Nov. 2006 with the objective to introduce the SCR-, or combined DPF+SCR-systems in the VERT verification procedure. Examples of results for some of the investigated systems are given. These investigations included parameters, which are important for the VERT quality testing: besides the regulated gaseous emissions several unregulated components such as NH3, NO2 and N2O were measured.
Vegetable oils blended to Diesel fuel are becoming popular. Economic, ecological and even political reasons are cited to decrease dependence on mineral oil and improve CO2 balance. The chemical composition of these bio fuels is different from mineral fuel, having less carbon and much more oxygen. Hence, internal combustion of Diesel + RME (Rapeseed Methyl Ester) blends was tested with particular focus on nanoparticle emissions, particle filtration characteristics and PAH-emissions. Fuel economy and emissions of bus engines were investigated in traffic, on a test-rig during standardized cycles, and on the chassis dynamometer. Fuel compositions were varied from standard EN 590 Diesel with <50 ppm sulfur to RME blends of 15, 30, and 50%. Also 100 % RME was tested on the test-rig. Emissions were compared with and without CRT traps. The PAH profiles of PM were determined. Particles were counted and analyzed for size, surface, and composition, using SMPS, PAS, DC and Coulometry.
1 The VERT project aimed at curtailing the construction site diesel emissions of ultra-fine particles to 1% of the raw emissions. Thus, compliance with occupational health legislation should be achieved. Particulate traps have attained this target. In contrast, engine tuning, reformulated fuels and oxidation catalytic converters are almost ineffective. This paper reports on the concluding project stage in which 10 traps were field tested during 2 years. Subsequent detailed measurements confirmed the excellent results: > 99% filtration rate was achieved in the nano-particulate range. The PAH, too, were very efficiently eliminated. Trap deployment becomes therefore imperative to fulfill VERT-targets.
1 Occupational Health Authorities in Germany and Switzerland require the use of particulate traps (PT) on construction machines used in underground and in tunneling since 1994. Swiss EPA has extended this requirement 1998 to all construction sites which are in or close to cities. During the VERT*-project, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]**, traps systems were evaluated for this purpose and only those providing efficiencies over 95% for ultrafine particles < 200 nm have received official recommendation. 10 trap-systems are very popular now for these application, most of them for retrofitting existing engines. Efficiency data will be given as well as experience during a 2-years authority-controlled field test. LIEBHERR, producing their own Diesel engines in Switzerland and construction machines in Germany is the first company worldwide supplying particulate traps as OEM-feature (Original Equipment Manufacturing) on customers request.
1 Switzerland is enforcing the use of particulate traps for offroad applications like construction as well as for occupational health applications like tunneling. This decision is based on the results of the VERT-project (1994-1999), which included basic aerosol research, bench screening and field testing of promising solutions as well as the development of implementation tools like trap specification, certification scheems and field control measures. On the other hand there is no corresponding regulation for city-buses yet although PM 10 is about 2× above limit in most Swiss cities. Public pressure however is growing and city transport authorities have reacted by retrofitting Diesel city-buses instead of waiting for cleaner engine technology or CNG-conversions. The favored trap system with about 200 retrofits so far is the CRT.
Diesel engines are irreplaceable in tunnel construction. The particulate emissions of present day engines are so high that the imission limits valid since 1991 cannot be attained by ventilation alone. This problem had to be solved preparatory to the large tunnel projects in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Several retro-fitting measures were investigated both in the laboratory and in field tests, within the scope of the Project VERT. Oxidation catalytic converters, exhaust gas recirculation, and the usage of special fuels cannot be recommended. Particulate trap deployment, in different systems, was mostly successful. Particular attention was focused on the dependable filtration of finest particulates < 200 nm. The VERT proved that exhaust gas after-treatment with particulate traps is feasible, cost effective and controllable in the field. Pertinent directives are in discussion.
Microfibers with high specific micro-surface can be knitted into two-dimensional structures with large internal porosity. Catalytically active metals can be deposited on the fibers with high dispersion by wet-impregnation, sol-gel or CVD, respectively. These microfiber knits may be used for exhaust gas treatment systems with a triple function: particle filtration, gas conversion and muffling. The total oxidation of propane on Pd and Pt coated fibers has been studied as a test reaction. Conversion temperature could be remarkably reduced compared to cellular structures. For a bimetallic (Pt-Pd) coating, the activity is independent of humidity or oxygen concentration. Thus a catalytic converter based on micro-fiber knits appears feasible. Its high mass and heat transfer prevent hot spots. And it functions as submicron filter for combustion aerosols. Integrated electric heating can also be provided in case of low gas temperatures. First tests on engines show promising results.
1 Small off-road 4-stroke SI-engines have extraordinarily high pollutant emissions. These must be curtailed to comply with the new Swiss clean air act LRV 98. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigated the state of the technology. The aim was a cleaner agricultural walk behind mower with a 10kW 4-stroke SI-engine. Two engine designs were compared: side-valve and OHV. A commercially available 3-way catalytic converter system substantially curtailed emissions: In the ISO 8178 G test-cycle-average, HC was minimized to 8% and CO to 5% of raw emissions. At part load points, the residual emission was < 1%. Simultaneously, fuel consumption improved 10%. Using a special gasoline (Swiss standard SN 181 163), the aromatic hydrocarbons were curtailed, e.g. Benzene < 1%, and fuel consumption further improved. Those results were confirmed in field tests. The engine is approved for retrofitting.
By means of catalysts, either coatings or fuel-borne, the temperature level for triggering the combustion of soot stored in particulate traps can be lowered from 600°C to 300°C, in case of CRT even to 250°C; but even that may fail, if in dense traffic application of a city-bus only 150 - 200°C are attained - similar situations of low load duty cycles exist in most other applications too. Mere passive regeneration may then not be sufficient, active support is needed. This paper presents an “active” method applicable to any Diesel engine to increase the exhaust temperature whenever required: load of Diesel engines is controlled by the fuel flow only; consequently, excess of air above stochiometric requirement is increasing from λ = 1.5 to λ = 8 with decreasing load, which is in fact the principal cause of the low temperature at light loads.
THE COMPREX PRESSURE WAVE SUPERCHARGER (PWS), developed for passenger car diesel engines, is now in production. Those of its properties which influence road performance, fuel consumption, and emission behavior of the PWS charged engine are described on the basis of the maps of the production models. The design for high volume production is presented and substantiated by test results. 6 types are available, covering an engine range from one to three litr swept volume with and without charge air cooling and optional waste gate. Instant response and high efficiency allow downsizing and downspeeding and lead to improved fuel economy, low emission and low noise level.
The development of particulate-traps for big engines is more difficult than for automobile applications. The usual placement, after the turbocharger, necessitates complex solutions to challenges in size, flow distribution and regeneration. The placement of the particulate trap ahead of the turbocharger has technical and financial advantages, and has previously been extensively investigated, but did not prevail because of poor reliability of the monolithic traps. This paper investigates the knitted fiber trap, a mechanically and thermically dependable unit, developed for integration into the engine. A modular design makes the trap very compact. Filtration rate and pressure loss are satisfactory. The filter element has not shown any weakness. A typical deficiency of this application, that needs further investigation, is worsening of the engine's transient response by the thermal inertia of the filter material.
The Comprex(R) is a pressure-wave supercharger (PWS) for passenger car diesel engines. It has many features which ideally suit it for the continually increasing demands on driveability, fuel economy and reduction of exhaust pollutants. To counter the disadvantages of the previously required belt drive, a free-running machine was developed. It is self driven by the kinetic energy of the exhaust gas; made possible by employing a rotor having reduced inertia. In addition to the well known Comprex features, this advanced development offers advantages such as rapid response, high efficiency, compactness and freedom in placement. The paper discusses the design of the free-running PWS, its construction, supercharging characteristics and preliminary experience.
The acceleration response of a supercharged diesel engine passenger car, equipped with a particulate trap, is studied using a simulation program. The superchargers evaluated are the Comprex(R) pressure-wave supercharger as well as turbochargers with fixed and variable-geometry. The particulate trap is placed before the supercharger to promote the trap regeneration and to reduce the pumping gas-exchange work. Particulate traps currently used are such a large thermal sink that the acceleration response is unacceptable. There are promising innovations in progress to develop a particulate trap with less than a quarter of the present mass. The computations demonstrate that the acceleration response should then be acceptable.
Increasing concern, about the health risk due to solid aerosols from engine combustion, has provoked more stringent imission limits, for soot particles in the range of pulmonary intrusion, at critical work-places (e.g. tunnel sites, see Table 1). Within the scope of the joint European project VERT, these emissions were characterized and their effective curtailment through exhaust gas after-treatment investigated. Diesel engines, irrespective of design and operating point, emit solid particulates in the range of 100 nm, at concentrations above 10 million particulates per cm3. Engine tests showed that a drastic curtailment of pulmonary intruding particulates seems not feasible by further development of the engine combustion, nor by reformulation of fuels, nor by deployment of oxidation catalytic converters. Particulate traps, however, can curtail the total solid particulate count, in the fine particulate range 15-500 nm, by more than two orders of magnitude.
Ceramic fibers, in a knitted structure, offer an elastic deep-filter medium having a very high specific surface. The robustness of this trap, and its invulnerability to thermo-shock, was demonstrated during a further year of development and tests. By using new manufacturing techniques, the filtration efficiency was further improved, pressure losses reduced, and the required volume diminished. New insight was obtained regarding the employment of the fiber medium for catalysis. The filter concept permits regeneration either electrically or by fuel-additives. The layout versatility facilitates deployment on vehicular and stationary engines, in the pre-turbo position, too.
Primary measures, to reduce the NOx emissions from diesel engines, penalize the fuel consumption and aggravate the CO2 problem. Instead, an after-treatment system is proposed that permits optimum combustion and yet reduces the NOx by more than 95%. Such installations are in operation for more than five years. Successful deployment on a short-haul ferry, subject to highly cyclic operation, began in Spring 1992. The chief features are high space-velocity (25,000 1/h), urea as non-toxic reactant and rapid transient response. The attained results counter the misgivings about the SCR catalysis. Development aims at further halving the size thus facilitating service in off-highway vehicles such as locomotives and earth-movers. The integration of particulate traps using knitted micro-fibers is under development.