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Technical Paper

Use of Renewable Oxygenated Fuels in Order to Reduce Particle Emissions from a GDI High Performance Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0628
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Methane-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0046
In this paper the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion was investigated. Gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel), while methane was injected in the combustion chamber (DI fuel), in order to reproduce a stratified combustion. The combustion process and the related engine performance and pollutant emissions were analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the flame front propagation and the soot and temperature concentration in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Coking Effect of Different FN Nozzles on Injection and Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0039
Interest on the issue of diesel injector nozzle deposits is rising in the last years due to its effects on engine performance. The alteration of nozzles geometry can cause a difference in fuel mass flow and influence smoke emission. Investigation on the effects of nozzle coking in a diesel injector has been the topic of this paper. The experiments have been carried out in a single cylinder optical engine operating in premixed mode. The head of a Euro 5 production engine has been mounted on an elongated cylinder and the production CR injection system has been used. A sapphire window has been set in the piston head in order to have visible access to phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber. Three injectors with decreasing flow number (FN) have been tested. Engine has been fed with commercial diesel fuel. High spatial and temporal resolution camera has been used for the acquisition of in-cylinder injection and combustion images.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends with Additives and Their Effects on the Spray Behavior

2013-09-08
2013-24-0035
A set of additives was selected to improve the durability of the physical-chemical and biological characteristics of mineral diesel and its blend with biodiesel. Two biodiesels were used: soybean (SME) and rapeseed (RME). Both physical-chemical properties and fuel dispersion of fuel blends and their mixtures with additives were measured that could have effects on the combustion process in diesel engines. The dispersion of the fuel is affected by the injection nozzle integrity, influencing the capacity of the fuel to vaporize, while the modification of the fuel molecular structure can cause changes in combustion reaction. A 7 hole Common Rail (CR) 2nd generation injector, 136 μm in diameter, was used at 80 MPa and 1.0 ms injection pressure and duration, respectively. The injection rate was determined using the Bosch's Method, while the fuel dispersion was measured by analyzing the images of spray evolving in an optical accessible quiescent vessel.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Emission Spectra in HCCI Combustion

2013-09-08
2013-24-0042
This work reports on the application of spectroscopic measurements coupled with data processing techniques in order to study, in terms of spectral emissions, the dynamic of the HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion that occurs inside the combustion chamber of an optically accessible direct injection Diesel engine. A pre-processing of the recorded spectra is required for a correct analysis. The procedure of pre-processing consists of two main steps, that is: noise filtering with a technique based on the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition); estimate and subtraction of the baseline. The analysis of the dynamics of the recorded spectra was carried out by the estimates of the synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra.
Technical Paper

Independent Component Analysis of Combustion Images in Optically Accessible Gasoline and Diesel Engines

2013-09-08
2013-24-0045
Flame luminosity fields can nowadays be collected from optically accessible engines, with high spatial and temporal resolution, and constitute a very powerful investigation means for the transient combustion phenomena taking place in the engine chamber. Interpretation of the impressive amount of collected data can be quite challenging, mainly due to the variety of coupled phenomena involved. Application of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) aims here at separating spatial structures related to different combustion events, and is coupled with the analysis of the statistics of the coefficients of the independent components, and of the measured in-cylinder parameters. This paper reports on the comparison of the application of ICA to 2D images of combustion-related luminosity collected from two different optically accessible engines: Diesel and spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Characterization of PCCI Combustion in a Single Cylinder CI Engine Fuelled with RME and Bio-Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1672
This paper reports experiments on a single-cylinder direct-injection compression ignition engine operating in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The engine was fuelled with pure rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and bio-ethanol. RME was injected in the combustion chamber by common rail (CR) injection system at 800 bar and bio-ethanol in the intake manifold by commercial port fuel injection system at 3.5 bar. The effects of different percentage of bio-ethanol were studied by means of both the in-cylinder heat release analysis and the high-speed UV-visible chemiluminescence visualization. The pollutant formation and exhaust emissions of the engine operating in dual fuel mode were evaluated. The increase of the bio-ethanol content improved the brake thermal efficiency slightly even if the brake fuel consumption increased. However, the choice to inject two biofuels decreases both the smoke opacity and NOx concentration.
Technical Paper

Vapor and Liquid Phases of the ECN Spray G Impacting on a Flat Wall at Engine-Like Conditions

2016-10-17
2016-01-2199
Mixture formation is fundamental for the development of the combustion process in internal combustion engines, for the energy release, the consumption, and the pollutant formation. Concerning the spark ignition engines, the direct injection technology is being considered as an effective mean to achieve the optimal air-to-fuel ratio distribution at each operating condition, either through charge stratification around the spark plug and stoichiometric mixture under the high power requirements. Due to the highest injection pressures, the impact of a spray on the piston or on the cylinder walls causes the formation of liquid film (wall-film) and secondary atomization of the droplets. The wall-film could have no negligible size, especially where the mixture formation is realized under a wall-guided mode. The present work aims to report the effects of the ambient pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic parameters of the spray impact on a wall.
Technical Paper

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Organic Particulate Matter from Exhaust After-Treatment System of Euro 6 Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

2019-09-09
2019-24-0053
The current legislation does not take into account the limitation of sub 23 nm particles from engine. Nevertheless, the Common Rail Diesel engine emits a large number of nanoparticle, solid and volatiles, that are very dangerous for human health. In this contest, the challenge of the “dieper EU project” is to apply advanced technologies for exhaust after-treatment to existing diesel engines and to optimize the characteristics of a new generation of engines with regards to emissions, fuel consumption and drivability. Aim of the present paper is to provide useful information for the development of the after-treatment system that will have to fulfill Euro6 further steps. In order to characterize the chemical and physical nature of Particulate Matter emitted from Euro 6b Medium Duty diesel engine, the pollutants were collected and analyzed: from engine-out, downstream of the particulate filter (DPF), and at the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR).
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

On the Entrainment Velocity and Characteristic Length Scales Used for Quasi-Dimensional Turbulent Combustion Modeling in Spark Ignition Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0002
Quasi-dimensional modeling is used on a wide scale in engine development, given its potential for saving time and resources compared to experimental investigations. Often it is preferred to more complex CFD codes that are much more computationally intensive. Accuracy is one major issue of quasi-dimensional simulations and for this reason sub-models are continuously developed for improving predictive capabilities. This study considers the use of equivalent fluid velocity and characteristic length scales for simulating the processes of fresh charge entrainment and oxidation behind the flame front. Rather than dividing combustion into three different phases (i.e. laminar kernel, turbulent flame propagation and oxidation near the walls), the concept of turbulent heat and mass transfer is imposed throughout the entire process.
Technical Paper

Particle Formation and Emissions in an Optical Small Displacement SI Engine Dual Fueled with CNG DI and Gasoline PFI

2017-09-04
2017-24-0092
Fuel depletion as well as the growing concerns on environmental issues prompt to the use of more eco-friendly fuels. The compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered one of the most promising alternative fuel for engine applications because of the lower emissions. Nevertheless, recent studies highlighted the presence of ultrafine particle emissions at the exhaust of CNG engines. The present study aims to investigate the effect of CNG on particle formation and emissions when it was direct injected and when it was dual fueled with gasoline. In this latter case, the CNG was direct injected and the gasoline port fuel injected. The study was carried out on a transparent single cylinder SI engine in order to investigate the in-cylinder process by real time non-intrusive diagnostics. In-cylinder 2D chemiluminescence measurements from UV to visible were carried out.
Technical Paper

N-Heptane Ignition Delay Time Model for Two Stage Combustion Process

2017-09-04
2017-24-0071
Ignition delay time is key to any hydrocarbon combustion process. In that sense, this parameter has to be known accurately, and especially for internal combustion engine applications. Combustion timing is one of the most important factors influencing overall engine performances like power output, combustion efficiency, emissions, in-cylinder peak pressure, etc. In the case of low temperature combustion (LTC) mode (e.g. HCCI mode), this parameter is controlled by chemical kinetics. In this paper, an ignition delay time model including 7 direct reactions and 13 species coupled with a temperature criterion is described. This mechanism has been obtained from the previous 26-step n-heptane reduced mechanism, focusing on the low temperature region which is the most important phase during the two stage combustion process. The complete model works with 7 reactions until the critical temperature is reached, leading to the detection of the ignition delay time value.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Sources of Particulate Emission within a Natural Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0141
The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of soot emissions in Spark-Ignition SI engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions. This because the common thought is that particulate emerging from the engine derives mainly from fuel, otherwise the contribute of lubricant oil cannot be neglected or underestimated, especially when the fuel itself produces low levels of soot emissions, such as in the case of premixed natural gas. The fuel-derived contribution was studied by analyzing the influence that natural gas composition has on soot emitted from a single cylinder Spark-Ignition (SI) engine. To achieve this purpose, methane/propane mixtures were realized and injected into the intake manifold of a Single-Cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G

2019-04-02
2019-01-0283
The use of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) continuously increases due to the growing demand of efficiency and power output for i.c. engines. The optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion, reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Good spray atomization facilitates fuel evaporation in i.c. engines thus contributing to the fuel economy and lowering the emissions. One of the key features of a multi-hole injector is to provide an optimal spray pattern in the combustion chamber and a good mixture homogenization considering the engine-specific characteristics such fuel mass-flow rate, cylinder geometry, injector position, and charge motion. This work aims to investigate the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G, serial #19).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Dual Fuel Combustion in Single Cylinder Research Engine Fueled with Methane and Diesel by IR Diagnostics

2019-04-02
2019-01-1165
In the present study, dual fuel mode is investigated in a single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) research engine. Methane is injected in the intake manifold while the diesel is delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study by non-intrusive diagnostics the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount during the combustion evolution from start of combustion. IR imaging is applied in cycle resolved mode. Three filters are adopted to detect from injection to combustion phase with high spatial and temporal resolution: OD1.45 (3-5.5 μm), band pass 3.3 μm (hydrocarbons) and band pass 4.2 μm (CO2). Using the band pass IR imaging qualitative information about fuel-vapor distribution and ignition locations during low and high temperature combustion have been provided.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0257
Dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas) concept represents a possible solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas (methane) as an alternative fuel. Methane was injected in the intake manifold while the diesel oil was injected directly into the engine. The present work describes the results of a numerical study on combustion process of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil. In particular, the aim is to study the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount on both pollutant emissions and combustion evolution. The study of dual-fuel engines that is carried out in this paper aims at the evaluation of the CFD potential, by a 3-dimensional code, to predict the main features of this technology.
Technical Paper

Iso-Octane Spray from a GDI Multi-Hole Injector under Non- and Flash Boiling Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2319
GDI injection systems have become dominant in passenger cars due to their flexibility in managing and advantages in the fuel economy. With the increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the fuel spray behavior has become essential. Different engine loads produce in a variety of fuel supplying conditions that affect the air/fuel mixture preparation and influence the efficiency and pollutant production. The flash boiling is a particular state that occurs for peculiar thermodynamic conditions of the engine. It could strongly influence the mixture in sub-atmospheric environments with detrimental effects on emissions. In order to obtain an in-depth understanding of the flash boiling phenomena, it is necessary to study the parameters influencing the mixture formation and their appearance in diverse engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the ECN Spray G under Different Engine-Like Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0281
A detailed understanding of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) techniques applied to spark-ignition (SI) engines is necessary as they allow for many technical advantages such as increased power output, higher fuel efficiency and better cold start performances. Within this context, the extensive validation of multi-dimensional models against experimental data is a fundamental task in order to achieve an accurate reproduction of the physical phenomena characterizing the injected fuel spray. In this work, simulations of different Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G conditions were performed with the Lib-ICE code, which is based on the open source OpenFOAM technology, by using a RANS Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to model the ambient gas-fuel spray interaction.
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