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Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-09-08
2013-24-0160
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

2017-09-04
2017-24-0012
Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Performance of a Turbocharged S.I. Engine under Transient Operating Conditions by Means of Fast Running Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1115
The aim of this work is the assessment of the predictive capabilities of fast running models, obtained through an appropriate reduction and simplification process from detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models, for a turbocharged s.i. engine under highly transient operating conditions. Simulations results have been compared with experimental data for different types of models, ranging from fully detailed 1D fluid-dynamic models to map-based models, quantifying the degradation of the model accuracy and the reduction in the computational time for different kinds of driving cycles, from moderately transient such as the NEDC to highly dynamic such as the US06.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector Operation with Advanced Injection Strategies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0563
The selection and tuning of the Fuel Injection System (FIS) are among the most critical tasks for the automotive diesel engine design engineers. In fact, the injection strongly affects the combustion phenomena through which controlling a wide range of related issues such as pollutant emissions, combustion noise and fuel efficiency becomes feasible. In the scope of the engine design optimization, the simulation is an efficient tool in order to both predict the key performance parameters of the FIS, and to reduce the amount of experiments needed to reach the final product configuration. In this work a complete characterization of a solenoid ballistic injector for a Light-Duty Common Rail system was therefore implemented in a commercially available one-dimensional computational software called GT-SUITE. The main phenomena governing the injector operation were simulated by means of three sub-models (electro-magnetic, hydraulic and mechanical).
Technical Paper

Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions of Different Biodiesel Blends Versus ULSD from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0633
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Particle Number and Size from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0429
Particulate Matter (PM) particles number and size distribution emitted from a small displacement automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine were analyzed in order to evaluate the impact of different engine operating parameters, such as engine load, EGR rate and injection pattern during DPF regeneration. The engine was equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) integrated in a single canning. The pollutant emissions were sampled at two locations along the exhaust system: at the engine outlet and downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst, in order to characterize particles entering the DOC and the DPF respectively. Particle size distributions were measured by means of a two stage dilution system coupled with a downstream Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS).
Technical Paper

Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0373
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Different Variable Valve Actuation Strategies on a Light Duty Diesel Engine for Improving Exhaust System Warm Up

2017-09-04
2017-24-0024
The need for achieving a fast warm up of the exhaust system has raised in the recent years a growing interest in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology for automotive diesel engines. As a matter of fact, different measures can be adopted through VVA to accelerate the warm up of the exhaust system, such as using hot internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (iEGR) to heat the intake charge, especially at part load, or adopting early Exhaust Valve Opening (eEVO) timing during the expansion stroke, so to increase the exhaust gas temperature during blowdown. In this paper a simulation study is presented evaluating the impact of VVA on the exhaust temperature of a modern light duty 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters, equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT).
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Modeling the Cat-Heating Transient Phase in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0010
This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

2018-05-30
2018-37-0009
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of the CO2 Reduction Potential of Variable Valve Actuation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2018-05-30
2018-37-0006
The increasingly demanding targets in terms of CO2 reduction lead to the adoption of engine technologies left so far for innovation. In diesel engines, some of the primary interests in adopting an advanced air management system, as Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), are related to Miller cycle enabling, and valve timing optimization. In this context, a numerical study was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of VVA on passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters. The engine model, developed in GT-SUITE, features a predictive combustion model (DIPulse) and it is coupled with a fully predictive fuel injector model for the simulation of complex injection patterns. 3 different VVA techniques were evaluated, all targeting CO2 reduction: Late Exhaust Valve Opening (LEVO), Exhaust Phasing, and Late Inlet Valve Closure (LIVC) for enabling Miller cycle.
Technical Paper

Assessment through Numerical Simulation of the Impact of a 48 V Electric Supercharger on Performance and CO2 Emissions of a Gasoline Passenger Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-1284
The demanding CO2 emission targets are fostering the development of downsized, turbocharged and electrified engines. In this context, the need for high boost level at low engine speed requires the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. At the same time, the increased electrification level of the vehicles enables the usage of electrified boosting systems aiming to exploit the opportunities of high levels of electric power and energy available on-board. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of a 48 V electric supercharger (eSC) on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transients. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD fast running engine model representative of a 1.5 L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC in series with the main turbocharger, a dual voltage electric network (12 V + 48 V), a six-speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle and Elasticity Manoeuvres Simulation of a Small SUV Featuring an Electrically Boosted 1.0 L Gasoline Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0070
In order to meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, downsizing coupled with turbocharging has been proven as an effective way in reducing CO2 emissions while maintaining and improving vehicle driveability. As the downsizing becomes widely exploited, the increased boost levels entail the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. In a context of increasing electrification, the usage of electrified boosting systems can be effective in the improvement of vehicle performances. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of different voltage (12 V or 48 V) electric superchargers (eSC) on an extremely downsized 1.0L engine on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transient manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Latest Generation Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0142
A comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of two state-of-the-art diesel AfterTreatment Systems (ATS) for automotive applications is presented in this work. Both systems, designed to fulfill Euro 6 emissions regulations standards, consist of a closed-coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also known as SCR on Filter (SCRoF or SCRF). While the two systems feature the same Urea Water Solution (UWS) injector, major differences could be observed in the UWS mixing device, which is placed upstream of the SCRoF, whose design represents a crucial challenge due to the severe flow uniformity and compact packaging requirements.
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