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Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Heat Transfer in the SI Engine Exhaust System During Warm-Up

In order to meet the severe emission restrictions imposed by SULEV and EURO V standards the catalytic converter must reach light-off temperature during the first 20 seconds after engine cold start. Thermal losses in the exhaust manifold are driven by the heat transfer of the pulsating and turbulent exhaust flow and affect significantly the warm-up time of the catalyst. In the present paper an investigation concerning the gas-side heat transfer in the exhaust system of a spark ignited (SI) combustion engine with retarded ignition timing and secondary air injection into the exhaust port is reported. Based on this analysis, the warm-up simulation of a one-dimensional flow simulation tool is improved for an evaluation of different exhaust system configurations.
Technical Paper

Extensive Investigation of a Common Rail Diesel Injector Regarding Injection Characteristics and the Resulting Influences on the Dual Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

Natural gas and especially biogas combustion can be seen as one of the key technologies towards climate-neutral energy supply. With its extensive availability, biogas is amongst the most important renewable energy sources in the present energy mix. Today, the use of gaseous fuels is widely established, for example in cogeneration units for combined heat and power generation. In contrast to conventional spark plug ignition, the combustion can also be initialized by a pilot injection. In order to further increase engine efficiency, this article describes the process for a targeted optimization of the pilot fuel injection. One of the crucial points for a more efficient dual fuel combustion process, is to optimize the amount of pilot injection in order to increase overall engine efficiency, and therefore decrease fuel consumption. In this connection, the injection system plays a key role.
Technical Paper

Compensation Strategies for Aging Effects of Common-Rail Injector Nozzles

The thermal and emission efficiency of diesel engines depends to a large extent on the quality of fuel injection. However, over engine lifetime, injection rate and quality will change due to adverse nozzle aging effects, such as coking or cavitation. In this study, we discuss the influences of these effects on injection and heat release rate. The injection rates of previously unused nozzles and a nozzle that had been operated in a vehicle engine were compared in order to clarify the impact of aging effects. The key to the detection of alterations of injection nozzles is the identification of strongly correlating parameters. As a first step, an instrumented injector was set up to measure fuel pressure inside the feed line of the injector and the lift of the control piston. Different nozzles showed a distinguishable control piston motion depending on their different geometric specifications, which also affect the injection rates.
Technical Paper

Piston Design Optimization for a Two-Cylinder Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine - 3D-CFD-Simulation and Test Bed Measurements

The development of today's drivetrains focusses on the reduction of vehicles' CO2-emissions. Therefore, a drivetrain for urban and commuter traffic is under development at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines. The concept is based on a lean-burn air cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine, which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. On the one hand, lean-burn combustion leads to low nitrogen oxides emissions and high thermal efficiency. On the other hand, there are several challenges concerning inflammability, combustion stability and combustion duration. An approach to optimize the combustion process is the design of the piston bowl. The paper presents the engine concept at first. Afterwards, a description of design parameters for pistons of natural gas engines and a technical overview of piston bowls is given. Subsequent to the analysis of the different piston bowls, a new design approach is presented.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gas Flow through the Piston Ring Pack of an Internal Combustion Engine

Developing piston assemblies for internal combustion engines faces the conflicting priorities of blow-by, friction, oil consumption and wear. Solving this conflict consists in finding a minimum for all these parameters. This optimization can only be successful if all the effects involved are understood properly. In this paper only blow-by and its associated flow paths for a diesel engine in part load operating mode are part of a detailed numerical investigation. A comparison of the possibilities to do a CFD analysis of this problem should show why the way of modeling described here has been picked. Further, the determination of the complex geometry, which results in a challenging set of calculations, is described. Besides the constraints for temperature and pressure, a meshing method for the creation of a dynamic mesh that is capable of describing the movement of all three rings of the piston ring pack simultaneously is also explained.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Orifice Design Effects on a Methane Fuelled Prechamber Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

Due to its molecular structure, methane provides several advantages as fuel for internal combustion engines. To cope with nitrogen oxide emissions high levels of excess air are beneficial, which on the other hand deteriorates the flammability and combustion duration of the mixture. One approach to meet these challenges and ensure a stable combustion process are fuelled prechambers. The flow and combustion processes within these prechambers are highly influenced by the position, orientation, number and overall cross-sectional area of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main combustion chamber. In the present study, a water-cooled single cylinder test engine with a displacement volume of 0.5 l is equipped with a methane-fuelled prechamber. To evaluate influences of the aforementioned orifices several prechambers with variations of the orientation and number of nozzles are used under different operating conditions of engine speed and load.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Mixture Formation for Combined Injection Strategies in High-Performance SI-Engines

Alongside with the severe restrictions according to technical regulations of the corresponding racing series (air and/or fuel mass flow), the optimization of the mixture formation in SI-race engines is one of the most demanding challenges with respect to engine performance. Bearing in mind its impact on the ignition behavior and the following combustion, the physical processes during mixture formation play a vital role not only in respect of the engine's efficiency, fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions but also on engine performance. Furthermore, abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knock may be enhanced by insufficient mixture formation. This can presumably be explained by the strong influence of the spatial distribution of the air/fuel-ratio on the inflammability of the mixture as well as the local velocity of the turbulent flame front.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Journal Article

Development of a High Turbulence, Low Particle Number, High Injection Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection Combustion System

In the present work the benefit of a 50 MPa gasoline direct injection system (GDI) in terms of particle number (PN) emissions as well as fuel consumption is shown on a 0.5 l single cylinder research engine in different engine operating conditions. The investigations show a strong effect of injection timing on combustion duration. As fast combustion can be helpful to reduce fuel consumption, this effect should be investigated more in detail. Subsequent analysis with the method of particle image velocimetry (PIV) at the optical configuration of this engine and three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations reveal the influence of injection timing on large scale charge motion (tumble) and the level of turbulent kinetic energy. Especially with delayed injection timing, high combustion velocities can be achieved. At current series injection pressures, the particle number emissions increase at late injection timing.
Journal Article

Investigation of a Methane Scavenged Prechamber for Increased Efficiency of a Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

Scarce resources of fossil fuels and increasingly stringent exhaust emission legislation push towards a stronger focus to alternative fuels. Natural gas is considered a promising solution for small engines and passenger cars due to its high availability and low carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, natural gas indicates great potential of increased engine efficiency at lean-burn operation. However, the ignition of these lean air/fuel mixtures leads to new challenges, which can be met by fuel scavenged prechambers. At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen an air cooled natural gas engine with a single cylinder displacement volume of 0.5 L is equipped with a methane scavenged prechamber for investigations of the combustion process under real engine conditions. The main combustion chamber is supplied with a lean premixed air/fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Simulative Evaluation of Various Thermodynamic Cycles and the Specification of Their System Components Regarding the Optimization of a Cogeneration Unit

Given the increasing globalization and industrialization, the worldwide demand for energy continuously increases. In the context of modern Smart Grids, especially small and distributed power plants are a key factor. The present article essentially focuses on the investigation of different approaches for waste heat recovery (WHR) in small-scale CHP (combined heat and power) applications with an output range of approximately 20 kW. The engine integrated into the CHP system under investigation applies a lean-burn combustion process generally providing comparatively low exhaust gas temperatures, thus requiring a careful design that is crucial for efficient WHR. Therefore, this article presents the development and use of a simulation environment for the design and optimization of WHR in small-scale CHP applications.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulative Approaches for the Determination of Discharge Coefficients for Inlet and Exhaust Valves and Ports in Internal Combustion Engines

In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging of a Two-cylinder Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine with Uneven Firing Order

At the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen a drivetrain for urban and commuter traffic is under development. The concept is based on a lean-burn air-cooled two-cylinder natural gas engine which is combined with a hydraulic hybrid system. The engine is initially mechanically charged which results in an engine speed dependent torque. Turbocharging the natural gas fuelled engine derives increased engine torque especially at low engine speeds and exploits the potential of better knock resistance of natural gas compared to gasoline fuel. The paper presents a turbocharging concept for the two-cylinder engine at first. The firing order of 180/540°CA due to the crank shaft design and the lean-burn combustion are challenging restrictions to cope with. The consequences of the uneven firing order are investigated using 1D-simulation and the matching of the exhaust gas turbocharger is shown.
Technical Paper

Calculation of the Piston Assembly Friction: Classification, Validation and Interpretation

This SAE Technical Paper contains detailed data which are relevant for the calculation of the friction forces of the piston assembly in internal combustion engines. Useful ways of employing calculations besides measurements are exactly classified for the optimization of the piston assembly system in order to reduce friction losses. In the first step the theoretical basics for the calculation of the tribological system are introduced. Referring to the theory, the paper goes into detail about the basic set-up and the modeling degree of the calculation program. Furthermore, measured and calculated curves of friction forces are compared for different operating points. In addition, analysis of the crank-angle resolved friction force are presented with varying engine speeds, oil temperatures and loads and a detailed interpretation of the results is given.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Measuring and Simulating Friction between Piston Pin and Connecting Rod on a Tribometer Test Bench to Define Locally Resolved Friction Coefficients

Measuring and simulating the contact between piston pin and connecting rod (conrod) is very complex. The pin can rotate freely in the conrod as well as in the piston. Further, there is no defined oil supply with a constant pressure as it is for example in main bearings. A tribometer test bench was adapted to measure friction between pin and conrod. The system is loaded with a constant force and oil supply is realized as defined deficient lubrication. During one part of the schedule, the rotational speed is defined as ramp to measure friction coefficient over speed, in another part the speed was pivoted from positive to negative speed within less than 500 milliseconds. With this measurement method, the different friction coefficients between radial slider and pivot bearings could be quantified. The measurements were conducted for four different pin-coatings.
Technical Paper

Identification of Aging Effects in Common Rail Diesel Injectors Using Geometric Classifiers and Neural Networks

Aging effects such as coking or cavitation in the nozzle of common rail (CR) diesel injectors deteriorate combustion performance. This is of particular relevance when it comes to complying with emission legislation and demonstrates the need for detecting and compensating aging effects during operation. The first objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of worn nozzles on the injection rate. Therefore, measurements of commercial solenoid common rail diesel injectors with different nozzles are carried out using an injection rate analyzer of the Bosch type. Furthermore, a fault model for typical aging effects in the nozzle of the injector is presented together with two methods to detect and identify these effects. Both methods are based on a multi-domain simulation model of the injector. The needle lift, the control piston lift and the pressure in the lower feed line are used for the fault diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Development of Dynamic Models for an HCCI Engine with Fully Variable Valve-Train

For the next stage of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine researches, the development of an engine controller, taking account of dynamics is required. The objective of this paper is to develop dynamic multi input and multi output HCCI engine models and a controller to deal with variable valve lift, variable valve phase, and fuel injection. First, a physical continuous model has been developed. This model mainly consists of air flow models, an ignition model, and a combustion and mechanical model of the engine. The flow models use a receiver model on volumetric elements such as an intake manifold and a valve flow model on throttling elements such as intake valves. Livengood-wu integration of Arrhenius function is used to predict ignition timing. The combustion duration is expressed as a function of ignition timings.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model-Based HCCI Control Strategy for an Engine with a Fully Variable Valve Train

This paper discusses research activities at the Technische Universität München on the HCCI combustion process, focusing on the development of a model-based control concept with pressure indication. As a first step sensitivity analyses have been carried out to investigate influences of different injection strategies on the combustion and emission characteristics. An optimal injection strategy has been determined and reasonable control variables and ranges corresponding to this strategy were defined. Comprehensive steady-state measurements have been conducted to detect the engine characteristics. In order to limit the experimental effort, principles of DoE (Design of Experiments) have been used to define a methodological approach in the planning of the measurements. Afterwards a multiple-input multiple-output engine model including boundary models for input settings has been designed out of the measurement results.
Journal Article

Heat Release Calculation of Internal Combustion Engines by Analyzing the Flame Radiation with Crankshaft Angle Resolution

Improving efficiency and reducing emissions are the principal challenges in developing new generations of internal combustion engines. Different strategies such as downsizing or sophisticated after-treatment of exhaust gases are pursued. Another approach aims at optimizing the parameterization of the engine. Correct adjustments of ignition timings, waste gate position and other factors have significant influence on the combustion process. A multitude of application data is generated during the development process to predefine appropriate settings for most situations. Improvements in regards to the application effort and the quality of the settings can be achieved by measuring the combustion process and optimizing the parametrization in a closed loop. However, cylinder pressure sensors that are used during the development process are too expensive for series applications.