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Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under the NOx Level of Japanese 2009 Emission Regulation

In order to discuss future technical issues for urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, it is necessary to assess various technical possibilities that would be applied to urea SCR systems which is capable of complying with future emission level requirements, for example Japanese 2009 emission regulation. In this paper, three measures (enhanced insulation on a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), aggressive urea solution injection and idling stop) are installed on a urea SCR system of a commercial engine system in order to achieve further NOx (nitrogen oxide) reductions. With combination of these three measures, NOx is drastically reduced to the levels lower than 0.7 g/kWh, which is a NOx limit value of the Japanese 2009 emission regulation. NH3 (ammonia) and HCN (hydro cyanide) are also measured as unregulated harmful components.
Technical Paper

Study of the Effect of Boiling Point on Combustion and PM Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine Using Two-Component n-Paraffin Fuels

Fuel composition is investigated as a parameter influencing fuel/air mixing of direct injected fuel and the subsequent consequences for particulate emissions. Presumably, enhanced mixing prior to ignition results in a larger portion of fuel burning as a premixture and a smaller portion of diffusion burning around fuel-rich regions. This would potentially lower particulate emissions without overly compromising hydrocarbon emissions or high load operation. Using mixtures of n-paraffin fuels, particulate emissions were measured and the results were compared with in-cylinder visualization of the injection process and two-color method calculations of flame temperature. In general, lower boiling point fuels exhibited higher flame temperatures, less visible flame, and lower particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

SOF Component of Lubricant Oil on Diesel PM in a High Boosted and Cooled EGR Engine

The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion with Variable Valve Timing

A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
Technical Paper

Visualization Experiment in a Transparent Engine With Pure and Mixed Normal Paraffin Fuels

In the previous study design of two-component normal paraffin fuel was attempted considering the components and blending ratio. Only the thermodynamic analysis of combustion and analysis of emission characteristics were performed to evaluate the design performance. In this study mixture formation behavior and combustion phenomena of pure and mixed n-paraffin fuels were investigated by direct visualization in an AVL engine with bottom view piston. The experiments included laser-illuminated high-speed photography of the fuel injection phase and combustion phase to investigate physical differences. The results obtained for the proposed fuels are compared with the results of conventional diesel fuel. It was found that the two component normal paraffin fuels with similar thermo physical properties have very similar spray development pattern but evaporation rates are different.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Effective BSFC and NOx Reduction on Super Clean Diesel of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by High Boosting and High EGR Rate

Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Behavior of Mixed Fuels having Different Component Cetane Number and Boiling Point

To clarify the effect of fuel properties on diesel exhaust emissions, direct injection of two component fuels with approximately zero aromatic content and sulfur were attempted in a diesel engine. Fuels were prepared using paraffins having different cetane numbers and boiling points. Parameters considered are the Average Boiling Point (ABP) by volume and the difference of component characteristics for the same ABP. The results indicate that the trade off relation between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions depends significantly on ABP or density and is independent of the fuel component. On the other hand, components of the mixed fuels have significant influence on SOF and THC emissions. Fuels having higher amount of low boiling point components emit higher THC. Mixtures of low boiling point-high cetane number fuel and high boiling point-low cetane number fuel or fuel that contains normal paraffins only emit higher SOF.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Fuel Spray

Fuel design for internal combustion engines has been proposed in our study. In this concept, the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels are used in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the spray and combustion characteristics of the multicomponent fuels in detail. In the present study, the modeling of multicomponent spray vaporization was conducted using KIVA3V code. The physical fuel properties of multicomponent fuel were estimated using the source code of NIST Mixture Property Database. Peng-Robinson equation of state and fugacity calculation were applied to the estimation of liquid-vapor equilibrium in order to take account for non-ideal vaporization process. Two-zone model in which fuel droplet was divided into droplet surface and inner core was introduced in order to simply consider the temperature distribution in fuel droplet.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage Reduction System for a Heavy-Duty Dimethyl Ether Engine

To establish NOx Storage Reduction(NSR) system, the effect of post fuel injection in exhaust pipe with rich spike on NOx conversion rate was investigated. With post fuel injection, a higher injection pressure and the rich spike close to the NSR catalyst (just before the NSR catalyst) shows better NOx reduction performance. Based on these results, exhaust emission was tested in transient driving mode (JE-05). In this driving mode test, it was possible to reduce NOx emission less than 0.5 g/kWh for only a 1% of fuel penalty controlling the rich spike injection precisely.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under Catalysts Activated and De-Activated Conditions

Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system has high potential of reducing NOx. But such as system durability and safety under deteriorated catalysts conditions have not been well enough clarified because it is new technology for vehicles. In this paper, current NOx emission level of an engine equipped with urea SCR system is discussed and then exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed when the SCR catalyst and/or oxidation catalyst lose their functions. When both SCR and oxidation catalyst were de-activated, not only NOx but also PM increased remarkably, which were much more than the engine-out emissions. Oxidation catalyst downstream of SCR catalyst was effective to suppress such deteriorations.
Technical Paper

0D Modeling of Real-Driving NOx Emissions for a Diesel Passenger Vehicle

NOx emissions from diesel passenger vehicles affect the atmospheric environment. It is difficult to evaluate the NOx emissions influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature, traffic conditions, driving patterns, etc. In the authors’ previous study, real-driving experiments were performed on city and highway routes using a diesel passenger car with only an exhaust gas recirculation system. A statistical prediction model of NOx emissions was considered for simple estimations in the real world using instantaneous vehicle data measured by the portable emissions measurement system and global positioning system. The prediction model consisted of explanatory variables, such as velocity, acceleration, road gradient, and position of transmission gear. Using the explanatory variables, NOx emissions on the city and highway routes was well predicted using a diesel vehicle without NOx reduction devices.
Technical Paper

Search for Optimizing Control Method of Homogeneous Charge Diesel Combustion

As a method for reducing exhaust emissions from diesel engines, we have experimented on a homogeneous charge diesel combustion technique (HCDC) whereby a portion of fuel is supplied into the intake port to form a homogeneous premixture, this is then fed into the cylinder from the intake port before ignition of the diesel fuel, which is injected directly into the cylinder. Our results have indicated possibilities of substantially reducing both NOx and smoke emissions. If diesel fuel is premixed with air, the premixture under-goes excessively early self-ignition, making it difficult to maintain ignition timing near top dead center and hence limiting the engine operating conditions. While an important target in emission reduction is to realize stable low-emission combustion during a high-load operation, the actual operation of diesel engines mostly involves partial-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Reduction of N2O from Automobiles Equipped with Three-Way Catalyst - Analysis of N2O Increase Due to Catalyst Deactivation -

To derive an effective technique for reducing a greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from automobiles, we prepared experimental three-way catalysts carrying various types and quantities of precious metals, and investigated their N2O generation and conversion characteristics. In view of previous reports on increased N2O emissions from in-use automobiles, we deactivated the catalysts in a rapid aging test, and observed the effect of catalyst deactivation on N2O generation and conversion by the catalysts. We found that the concentrations of generated N2O decreased as the quantities of precious metals carried by catalysts were decreased and that, accordingly, these low-carrying catalysts are more advantageous from the standpoint of reducing N2O generation. However, the concentrations of generated N2O increased as the catalysts were deactivated.
Journal Article

A Study on High-Accuracy Test Method for Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles Considering the Transient Characteristics of Engines

In the conventional approval test method of fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel vehicles currently in use in Japan, the fuel consumption under the transient test cycle is calculated by integrating the instantaneous fuel consumption rate referred from a look-up table of fuel consumptions measured under the steady state conditions of the engine. Therefore, the transient engine performance is not considered in this conventional method. In this study, a highly accurate test method for fuel consumption in which the map-based fuel consumption rate is corrected using the transient characteristics of individual engines was developed. The method and its applicability for a heavy-duty diesel engine that complied with the Japanese 2009 emission regulation were validated.
Journal Article

Effect of Biodiesel on NOx Reduction Performance of Urea-SCR System

The use of biomass fuels for vehicles has been a focus of attention all over the world in terms of prevention of global warming, effective utilization of resources and local revitalization. For the purpose of beneficial use of unused biomass resources, the movement of the use of bioethanol and biodiesel made from them has spread in Japan. In Japan, biodiesel is mainly made from waste cooking oil collected by local communities or governments, and in terms of local production for local consumption, it is used as neat fuel (100% biofuel) or mixed with diesel fuel in high concentration for the vehicles. On the other hand, extremely low emission level must be kept for not only gasoline vehicles but also diesel vehicles in the post new long-term regulation implemented from 2009 in Japan.