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Technical Paper

Failure Loads of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0983
In this investigation, spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens were tested under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Micrographs of the spot friction welds after testing were examined to understand the failure modes of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under different loading conditions. The micrographs indicate that the spot friction welds produced by this particular set of welding parameters failed in interfacial failure mode under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The load and displacement histories for lap-shear specimens were obtained under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions at three different impact velocities. The failure loads of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under dynamic loading conditions are about 7% larger than those under quasi-static loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets

2004-03-08
2004-01-1330
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations. Two types of tools, a Type I tool with a flat tool shoulder and a Type II tool with a concave tool shoulder, were used to join the aluminum sheets with different processing parameters. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot friction welds made by the two types of tools in lap-shear specimens before and after failure are examined. These spot friction welds show the failure mode of nugget pullout under lap-shear loading conditions. However, the micrographs show different microstructures and failure mechanisms for spot friction welds made by the two types of tools with different processing parameters.
Journal Article

A Generalized Anisotropic Hardening Rule Based on the Mroz Multi-Yield-Surface Model and Various Classical Yield Functions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1392
In this paper, a generalized anisotropic hardening rule based on the Mroz multi-yield-surface model is derived. The evolution equation for the active yield surface is obtained by considering the continuous expansion of the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process. The incremental constitutive relation based on the associated flow rule is then derived for a general yield function. Detailed incremental constitutive relations for materials based on the Mises yield function, the Hill quadratic anisotropic yield function and the Drucker-Prager yield function are derived as the special cases. The closed-form solutions for one-dimensional stress-plastic strain curves are plotted for materials under cyclic loading conditions based on the three yield functions.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Nb-Clad Stainless Steel Sheets

2009-04-20
2009-01-1393
Because niobium-clad 304L stainless steel sheets are considered for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, their mechanical behavior and failure mechanism are important to be examined. As-rolled and annealed specimens were tested in tension, bending and flattening. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism were investigated. Micrographic analyses of bent and flattened specimens showed that the as-rolled specimens have limited ductility and that the annealed specimens can develop an intermetallic layer of thickness of a few microns. The annealed specimens failed due to the breakage of intermetallic layer causing localized necking and the subsequent failure of Nb layer. The springback angles of the as-rolled and annealed specimens were also obtained from guided-bend tests.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failures of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets Under Cyclic Loading Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1207
Fatigue failures of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6111-T4 sheets under cyclic loading conditions are investigated in this paper. The paths of fatigue cracks near the spot friction welds are first discussed. A fatigue crack growth model based on the Paris law for crack propagation and the global and local stress intensity factors for kinked cracks is then adopted to predict the fatigue lives of these spot friction welds. The global stress intensity factors and the local stress intensity factors based on the recent published works for resistance spot welds in lap-shear specimens are used to estimate the local stress intensity factors for kinked cracks with experimentally determined kink angles. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the Paris law and the local stress intensity factors as functions of the kink length agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Analytic Solution of Mode I Stress Intensity Factor for Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2006-04-03
2006-01-0535
The analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor for spot welds in lap-shear specimens is investigated based on the classical Kirchhoff plate theory for linear elastic materials. Approximate closed-form solutions for a finite square plate containing a rigid inclusion under counter bending conditions are first derived. Based on the J integral, the closed-form structural stress solution is used to develop the analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor for spot welds in lap-shear specimens of finite size. Finally, the analytic solution of the mode I stress intensity factor based on the stress solution for a finite square plate with an inclusion is compared with the results of the three-dimensional finite element computations for lap-shear specimens with various ratios of the specimen half width to the nugget radius.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms of Sandwich Specimens With Epoxy Foam Cores Under Bending Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0327
Sandwich specimens with DP590 steel face sheets and structural epoxy foam cores are investigated under three-point bending conditions. Experimental results indicate that the maximum loads correspond to extensive cracking in the foam cores. Finite element simulations of the bending tests are also performed to understand the failure mechanisms of the epoxy foams. In these simulations, the plastic behavior of the steel face sheets is modeled by the Mises yield criterion with consideration of plastic strain hardening. A pressure sensitive yield criterion is used to model the plastic behavior of the epoxy foam cores. The epoxy foams are idealized to follow an elastic perfectly plastic behavior. The simulation results indicate that the load-displacement responses of some sandwich specimens agree with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shear Loads on Crush of Honeycomb Materials

2002-03-04
2002-01-0683
We conduct static experiments to investigate the influence of shear stress on the crush behavior of honeycomb materials. The aluminum honeycomb materials selected in this investigation are orthotropic due to their manufacturing processes. A test fixture and honeycomb specimens are designed such that combined compressive and shear loads along the strongest material symmetry axis can be controlled and applied accurately. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the rupture of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Fracture and Fatigue Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1247
In this paper, fracture and fatigue mechanisms of spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations. Optical and scanning electron micrographs of these spot friction welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are examined. The micrographs show the fracture and fatigue mechanisms of spot friction welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The experimental observations indicate that the fracture mechanisms depend on the microstructure and geometry of welds under quasi-static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading conditions, the fatigue mechanisms depend not only on the microstructure and geometry of welds but also on the load amplitudes.
Journal Article

Closed-Form Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Spot Welds in Various Types of Specimens

2008-04-14
2008-01-1141
Closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of spot welds in four types of commonly used specimens are obtained based on elasticity theories and fracture mechanics. The loading conditions for spot welds in the central parts of four types of specimens are first examined. The resultant loads on the weld nugget and the self-balanced resultant loads on the lateral surface of the central parts of the specimens are then decomposed into various types of symmetric and anti-symmetric parts. Closed-form structural stress and stress intensity factor solutions for spot welds under various types of loading conditions are then adopted from a recent work of Lin and Pan to derive new closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of spot welds in the four types of specimens.
Journal Article

Theoretical Framework for Modeling Spot Welds under Various Types of Loading Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1136
The theoretical framework and closed-form stress intensity factor solutions in terms of the structural stresses for spot welds under various types of loading conditions are presented based on elasticity theories and fracture mechanics. A mechanics description of loading conditions for a finite plate with a rigid inclusion is first presented. The loading conditions of interest are the resultant loads on the inclusion in a plate and the surface tractions on the lateral surface of a plate. The surface tractions on the lateral surface of the plate can be decomposed into a load-balanced part and a self-balanced part. The resultant loads on the inclusion and the self-balanced resultant loads on the lateral surface are then decomposed into various types of symmetric and anti-symmetric parts. Based on the elasticity theories, closed-form moment, force and stress solutions are derived for a plate with a rigid inclusion subjected to various types of loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0428
Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Failure of Laser Welds in Aluminum Sheets

2001-03-05
2001-01-0091
In this paper, the formability of AA5754 aluminum laser-welded blanks produced by Nd:YAG laser welding is investigated under biaxial straining conditions. The mechanical behavior of the laser-welded blanks is first examined by uniaxial tensile tests conducted with the weld line perpendicular to the tensile axis. Shear failure in the weld metal is observed in the experiments. Finite element simulations under generalized plane strain conditions are then conducted in order to further understand the effects of weld geometry and strength on the shear failure and formability of these welded blanks. The strain histories of the material elements in the weld metal obtained from finite element computations are finally used in a theoretical failure analysis based on the material imperfection approach to predict the failure strains for the laser-welded blanks under biaxial straining conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fatigue Lives of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets Based on Fracture Mechanics

2005-04-11
2005-01-1250
The fatigue lives of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6111-T4 sheets are investigated here. The paths of fatigue cracks near spot friction welds are first discussed. A fatigue crack growth model based on the Paris law for crack propagation and the local stress intensity factors for kinked cracks is then adopted to predict the fatigue lives of spot friction welds. The global and local stress intensity factors based on a recent work of Wang and Pan for resistance spot welds in lap-shear specimens are used to estimate the local stress intensity factors of kinked cracks with experimentally determined kink angles. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the Paris law and the local stress intensity factors as functions of the kink length agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

A General Failure Criterion for Spot Welds with Consideration of Plastic Anisotropy and Separation Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0611
A general failure criterion for spot welds is proposed with consideration of the plastic anisotropy and the separation speed for crash applications. A lower bound limit load analysis is conducted to account for the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution and the experimental results, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the plastic anisotropy, separation speed, sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads. Spot weld failure loads under uniaxial and biaxial opening loads and those under combined shear and twisting loads from experiments are shown to be characterized well by the engineering failure criterion.
Technical Paper

An Effective Fatigue Driving Stress for Failure Prediction of Spot Welds Under Cyclic Combined Loading Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0696
An effective fatigue driving stress is proposed to predict the failure of spot welds under cyclic combined loading conditions. The effective fatigue driving stress is obtained based on the Mises yield criterion in terms of the resultant forces and moments in a plastic collapse analysis of spot welds under complex combined loading conditions as discussed in Lin et al. [1]. The effective fatigue driving stress can be used to correlate the fatigue data of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the sheet thickness, nugget diameter and loading conditions. Experimental results for coach-peel and lap-shear specimens under cyclic loading conditions are used to evaluate the applicability of the effective fatigue driving stress. The experimental results for spot welds in both coach-peel and lap-shear specimens are correlated very well based on the effective fatigue driving stress.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Spot Welds Under Complex Combined Loading Conditions for Crash Applications

2002-07-09
2002-01-2032
Experiments to obtain the failure loads of spot welds are first reviewed under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A failure criterion is then presented for spot welds under combined opening and shear loading conditions based on the results from the experiments and a lower bound limit load analysis. In order to account for spot welds under more complex loading conditions, another lower bound limit load solution is presented to characterize the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 5754 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1256
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
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