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Technical Paper

The Feasibility of an Alumina-Based Lean NOx Trap (LNT) for Diesel and HCCI Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0451
An alumina-based LNT is being developed through laboratory studies, for diesel vehicle applications. This LNT provides high NOx conversion efficiency at low temperature (150 to 350°C, especially below 200°C), which is very important for the exhaust-gas after-treatment of diesel passenger vehicles. Addition of 2 to 4 wt% of alkaline-earth metal oxide or other metal oxides to the alumina LNT formulation improves NOx reduction activity at the high end of its active temperature window. More significantly, the alumina-based LNT can undergo the de-SOx process (the process of removing sulfur from the catalytic surfaces) very efficiently: within 1 minute at the relatively low temperature of 500 to 650°C under slightly rich conditions (λ = 0.98 to 0.987). Such a mild de-SOx process imposes minimal thermal exposure, causing almost no thermal damage to the LNT, and helps minimize the associated fuel penalty.
Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1211
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of EGR Cooler Fouling on a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1090
Cooled EGR provides benefits in better fuel economy and lower emissions by reducing knocking tendency and decreasing peak cylinder temperature in gasoline engines. However, GDI engines have high particle emissions due to limited mixing of fuel and air, and these particle emissions can be a major source of EGR cooler fouling. In order to improve our knowledge of GDI engine EGR cooler fouling, the effects of tube geometry and coolant temperature on EGR cooler performance and degradation were studied using a four cylinder 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine. In addition, deposit microstructure was analyzed to explore the nature of deposits formed under GDI engine operation. The results of this study showed that a dented tube geometry was more effective in cooling the exhaust gas than a smooth tube due to its large surface area and turbulent fluid motion. However, more deposits were accumulated and higher effectiveness loss was observed in the dented tube.
Technical Paper

Study of Effects of Thermal Insulation Techniques on a Catalytic Converter for Reducing Cold Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1431
Previous work done at the University of Michigan shows the capability of the vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC) to retain heat during soak and the resulting benefits in reducing cold start emissions. This paper provides an improved version of the design which overcomes some of the shortcomings of the previous model and further improves the applicability and benefits of VICC. Also, newer materials have been evaluated and their effects on heat retention and emissions have studied using the 1-D after treatment model. Cold start emissions constitute around 60% to 80% of all the hydrocarbon and CO emissions in present day vehicles. The time taken to achieve the catalyst light-off temperature in a three-way catalytic converter significantly affects the emissions and fuel efficiency. The current work aims at developing a method to retain heat in catalytic converter, thus avoiding the need for light-off and reducing cold start emissions effectively.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Composition of Clusters Formed by Plasma Discharge in Simulated Engine Exhaust

2000-10-16
2000-01-2967
Previously reported experiments revealed the presence of a small number of clusters or very small particles in the effluent of a nonthermal plasma reactor when treating a simulated engine exhaust mixture. These clusters are smaller than 7 nm. The quantity of clusters is orders of magnitude smaller than the particulate diesel or gasoline engine exhaust typically contains. In this report, we describe further experiments designed to determine the chemical composition of the clusters. Clusters were collected on the surface of a silicon substrate by exposing it to the effluent flow for extended time periods. The resulting deposits were analyzed by high mass resolution SIMS and by XPS. The SIMS analysis reveals NH4+, CH6N+, SO-, SO2-, SO3- and HSO4- ions. XPS reveals the presence of N and S at binding energies consistent with that of ammonium sulfate.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Plasma-Catalyst and Lean NOx Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction

2000-10-16
2000-01-2895
Projected NOx and fuel costs are compared for a plasma-catalyst system and an active lean NOx catalyst system. Comparisons are based on modeling of FTP cycle performance. The model uses steady state laboratory device characteristics, combined with measured vehicle exhaust data to predict NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalties. The plasma system uses a proprietary catalyst downstream of a plasma discharge. The active lean NOx catalyst uses a catalyst along with addition of hydrocarbons to the exhaust. For the plasma catalyst system, NOx conversion is available over a wide temperature range. Increased electrical power improves conversion but degrades vehicle fuel economy; 10 J/L energy deposition costs roughly 3% fuel economy. Improved efficiency is also available with larger catalyst size or increased exhaust hydrocarbon content. For the active lean NOx system, NOx conversion is available only in a narrow temperature range.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Valve Seat Leakage

1997-05-01
971638
A 1.9L four cylinder engine was evaluated for leakage of cylinder charge through the exhaust valve seats. Fast FID HC analyzer traces reveal leakage. Static leakdown tests do not correlate with the Fast FID measurement, unlike previously published reports for a different engine. The causes of exhaust valve seat leakage are likely to be Flakes of cylinder deposits lodging in the valve seat Valve seat distortion due to the thermal and pressure loading of the cylinder head structure Because deposit related effects are very history dependent, it is very difficult to obtain quantitative results. Some experimental observations: Static pressure leakage measurements show variation of leakage area with cylinder pressure, caused by flexing of the valve head. Dynamic leakage results are history dependent. Leakage is reduced after running at high speed/load, and gradually build up during extended light load low speed operation.
Technical Paper

NOx Measurement Errors in Ammonia-Containing Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-0330
Modern diesel aftertreatment systems may produce ammonia (NH3), especially in gas samples from midbed locations. NH3 causes significant measurement errors in NO, NO2, and NOx measurements for several NOx measurement technologies. A standard addition test was run adding NO, NO2, and/or NH3 to a diesel engine exhaust. Chemiluminescent (CLD), FTIR, and chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) instruments were used in a designed experiment. None of the instruments gave accurate, robust NOx measurement in the presence of high levels of NH3.
Technical Paper

NOx Destruction Behavior of Select Materials When Combined with a Non-Thermal Plasma

1999-10-25
1999-01-3640
NOx reduction efficiency under simulated lean burn conditions is examined for a non-thermal plasma in combination with borosilicate glass, alumina, titania, Cu-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5. The non-thermal plasma alone or with a packed bed of borosilicate glass beads converts NO to NO2 and partially oxidizes hydrocarbons. Alumina and Na-ZSM-5 reduce a maximum of 40% and 50% of NOx respectively; however, the energy cost is high for Na- ZSM-5. Cu-ZSM-5 converts less than 20% with a very high energy consumption. The anatase form of titania reduces up to 35% of NOx at a relatively high energy consumption (150J/L) when the catalyst is contained in the plasma region, but does not show any appreciable conversion when placed downstream from the reactor. This phenomenon is explained by photo-activation of anatase in the plasma.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel Exhaust Treatment: Current State of the Art

2001-03-05
2001-01-0185
Nonthermal plasma discharges in combination with catalysts are being developed for diesel aftertreatment. NOx conversion has been shown over several different catalyst materials. Particulate removal has also been demonstrated. The gas phase chemistry of the plasma discharge is described. The plasma is oxidative. NO is converted to NO2, CH3ONO2 and HNO3. Hydrocarbons are partially oxidized resulting in aldehydes and CO along with various organic species. Soot will oxidize if it is held in the plasma. When HC is present, SO2 is not converted to sulfates. Suitable plasma-catalysts can achieve NOx conversion over 70%, with a wider effective temperature range than non-plasma catalysts. NOx conversion requires HC and O2. Electrical power consumption and required exhaust HC levels increase fuel consumption by several percent. A plasma catalyst system has demonstrated over 90% particulate removal in vehicle exhaust.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

2016-04-05
2016-01-0967
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel NOx Remediation

1998-10-19
982429
A dielectric barrier discharge device has been built to test nonthermal plasma discharges for simulated diesel exhaust NOx removal. The device has also been tested with selected catalysts located after the plasma. Emissions are measured by conventional automotive emission analyzers, plus FTIR. Dielectric barrier discharges without catalyst convert input NO to a mix of NO2, HONO, HNO3, and organic nitrates. At 30 J/l energy deposition, approximately 26% of the input NO is “lost”. Some of the hydrocarbon input is converted to a variety of species, including CO, CO2, aldehydes, and alcohols. A Cu-ZSM catalyst after the plasma device eliminates the apparent NOx conversion seen with the bare plasma. This indicates that the apparent NOx conversion of the bare plasma is actually conversion to some (unmeasured) species which can be reconverted to NOx by the Cu-ZSM catalyst. Placing a proprietary catalyst within the plasma results in significant NOx conversion.
Technical Paper

Diesel NOx Reduction on Surfaces in Plasma

1998-10-19
982511
Recent work has shown that energy efficiencies as well as yields and selectivities of the NOx reduction reaction can be enhanced by combining a plasma discharge with select catalysts. While analysis of gas phase species with a chemiluminescent NOx meter and mass spectrometer show that significant removal of NOx is achieved, high background concentrations of nitrogen preclude the measurement of nitrogen produced from NOx reduction. Results presented in this paper show that N2 from NOx reduction can be measured if background N2 is replaced with helium. Nitrogen production results are presented for a catalyst system where the catalyst is in the plasma region and where the catalyst is downstream from the plasma. The amount of N2 produced is compared with the amount of NOx removed as measured by the chemiluminescent NOx meter. The measured nitrogen from NOx reduction accounts for at least 40% of the total NOx removed for both reactor configurations.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

2016-04-05
2016-01-0186
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Test Setup for Investigation of Water-Deposit Interaction in a Surrogate Rectangular Cooler Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Flow

2012-04-16
2012-01-0364
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOx emissions. The presence of a cool surface in the hot exhaust causes particulate soot deposition as well as hydrocarbon and water condensation. Fouling experienced through deposition of particulate matter and hydrocarbons results in degraded cooler effectiveness and increased pressure drop. In this study, a visualization test setup is designed and constructed so that the effect of water condensation on the deposit formation and growth at various coolant temperatures can be studied. A water-cooled surrogate rectangular channel is employed to represent the EGR cooler. One side of the channel is made of glass for visualization purposes. A medium duty diesel engine is used to generate the exhaust stream.
Technical Paper

Literature Survey of Water Injection Benefits on Boosted Spark Ignited Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0658
The automotive industry has been witnessing a major shift towards downsized boosted direct injection engines due to diminishing petroleum reserves and increasingly stringent emission targets. Boosted engines operate at a high mean effective pressure (MEP), resulting in higher in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, effectively leading to increased possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. Therefore, the compression ratio and boost pressure in modern engines are restricted, which in-turn limits the engine efficiency and power. To mitigate conditions where the engine is prone to knocking, the engine control system uses spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Several researchers have advocated water injection as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

2000-04-02
2000-01-1601
There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Simulator: Design and Application to Plasma Discharge Testing

2003-03-03
2003-01-1184
A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system has been designed for laboratory simulation of diesel exhaust gas. The system consists of mass flow controllers and a fuel pump, and employs several unique design and construction features. It produces particulate emissions with size, number distribution, and morphology similar to diesel exhaust. At the same time, it generates NOx emissions and HC similar to diesel. The system has been applied to test plasma discharges. Different design discharge devices have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot and moisture. Both packed bed reactor and flat plate dielectric barrier discharge systems remove some soot from the gas, but the designs tested are susceptible to soot fouling and related electrical failures. The burner is simple and stable, and is suitable for development and aging of plasma and catalysts systems in the laboratory environment.
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