Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 15 of 15
Journal Article

Instantaneous Flow Rate Testing with Simultaneous Spray Visualization of an SCR Urea Injector at Elevated Fluid Temperatures

2017-09-04
2017-24-0109
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are virtually indispensable to meet NOx emissions limits worldwide. These systems generate the NH3 reductant by injecting aqueous urea solution (AUS-32/AdBlue®/DEF) into the exhaust for the SCR NOx reduction reactions. Understanding the AUS-32 injector spray performance is critical to proper optimization of the SCR system. Specifically, better knowledge is required of urea sprays under operating conditions including those where fluid temperatures exceed the atmospheric fluid boiling point. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray which showed substantial structural differences in the spray between room temperature fluid conditions, and conditions where the fluid temperature approached and exceeded 104° C and “flash boiling” of the fluid was initiated.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

2017-09-04
2017-24-0012
Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electro-Hydraulic Camless VVA System

2007-09-16
2007-24-0088
Among variable valve actuation systems, fully flexible systems such as camless devices are the most attractive valvetrains for near-future engines. This paper presents a research activity about an electro-hydraulic camless system for internal combustion engines. The Hydraulic Valve Control (HVC) system uses hydraulic forces to open the valve while a mechanical spring is used for the closure. The system is fed by an hydraulic pump and two pressure regulators which provide two different pressure levels: a high pressure level (approximately 100 bar) for the pilot stage and a low adjustable pressure level (from 20 to 90 bar) for the actuator power stage. The valve opening duration is controlled by varying the timing of the opening signal of the pilot stage; the valve lift is adjusted varying the oil pressure of the power stage. From a general point of view, the HVC system is an open loop device for engine valve actuation.
Technical Paper

Flow Characterization of a High Performance S.I. Engine Intake System - Part 1: Experimental Analysis

2003-03-03
2003-01-0623
In this work an experimental analysis is performed to evaluate the influence of different flow bench test conditions and system configurations on the flow characteristics in the intake system of a high performance 4-valve, SI Internal Combustion Engine: valve lift, test pressure drop, throttle valve aperture, throttle valve opening direction in respect to the intake system layout (i.e. clockwise/counterclockwise), presence of the tumble adaptor. To this aim, experimental tests are performed on a Ducati Corse racing engine cylinder head, by measuring the discharge coefficient and the tumble coefficient. The several experimental data obtained by combining the different operational and geometrical parameters are analysed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of a New Concept Variable Valve Actuation System

2006-09-14
2006-01-3008
The present work concerns the analysis of a concept for a new variable valve actuation system for internal combustion engines, denoted HVC (Hydraulic Valve Control system). The system is an electro-hydraulic device which aims at minimizing the power consumption required for the valve actuation. Unlike lost motion devices, where the excess pumped oil is wasted in order to control the lift profile, the HVC system uses a reduced quantity of energy to ensure the actual lift profile. For that reason interesting potentialities to increase the global fuel conversion efficiency of the engine are expected, in addition to the benefits deriving from the control flexibility. The HVC system has been modeled by means of an hydraulic simulation tool, useful for the dynamic analysis of mechanical and hydraulic systems. In this work the main elements of the device will be described and their relevant modeling parameters will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of an Electro-Hydraulic Camless VVA System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1355
This paper presents the current research activity about an electro-hydraulic camless valve actuation system for internal combustion engines. From a general point of view, this system (Hydraulic Valve Control - HVC) is an open loop device for engine valve fully flexible camless actuation. In the HVC system, the valve actuation timing and duration are controlled by varying the driving signal of the pilot stage, which is governed by a solenoid, fast-acting, three-way valve; the valve lift is adjusted by varying the oil pressure of the power stage. This system uses hydraulic forces to open the engine valve while a mechanical spring is used for its closure. The HVC key element is a spool valve, which operates as a three way / three position valve. This element is designed in order to ensure the synchronization of its own motion with that of the poppet valve mass-spring system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Urea-Water Solution Temperature Effect on the Spray Characteristics in SCR Systems

2015-09-06
2015-24-2500
One of the favored automotive exhaust aftertreatment solutions used for nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reductions is referred to as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which comprises a catalyst that facilitates the reactions of ammonia (NH3) with the exhaust nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is customary with these systems to generate the NH3 by injecting a liquid aqueous urea solution (AUS-32) into the exhaust. The urea solution is injected into the exhaust and transformed to NH3 by various mechanisms for the SCR reactions. Understanding the spray performance of the AUS-32 injector is critical to proper optimization of the SCR injection system. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray under hot exhaust conditions at the injector spray exit for an exhaust injection application.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Mixture Formation at Partial Load Operating Condition: The Effect of the Throttle Valve Rotational Direction

2015-09-06
2015-24-2410
In the next incoming future the necessity of reducing the raw emissions leads to the challenge of an increment of the thermal engine efficiency. In particular it is necessary to increase the engine efficiency not only at full load but also at partial load conditions. In the open literature very few technical papers are available on the partial load conditions analysis. In the present paper the analysis of the effect of the throttle valve rotational direction on the mixture formation is analyzed. The engine was a PFI 4-valves motorcycle engine. The throttle valve opening angle was 17.2°, which lays between the very partial load and the partial load condition. The CFD code adopted for the analysis was the FIRE AVL code v. 2013.2. The exhaust, intake and compression phases till TDC were simulated: inlet/outlet boundary conditions from 1D simulations were imposed.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector Operation with Advanced Injection Strategies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0563
The selection and tuning of the Fuel Injection System (FIS) are among the most critical tasks for the automotive diesel engine design engineers. In fact, the injection strongly affects the combustion phenomena through which controlling a wide range of related issues such as pollutant emissions, combustion noise and fuel efficiency becomes feasible. In the scope of the engine design optimization, the simulation is an efficient tool in order to both predict the key performance parameters of the FIS, and to reduce the amount of experiments needed to reach the final product configuration. In this work a complete characterization of a solenoid ballistic injector for a Light-Duty Common Rail system was therefore implemented in a commercially available one-dimensional computational software called GT-SUITE. The main phenomena governing the injector operation were simulated by means of three sub-models (electro-magnetic, hydraulic and mechanical).
Technical Paper

Application of a Fully Flexible Electro-Hydraulic Camless System to a Research SI Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0076
This paper presents the further development of an electro-hydraulic camless valve actuation system for internal combustion engines. The system (Hydraulic Valve Control - HVC) is an open loop device for engine valve fully flexible camless actuation. Valve timing and duration are controlled by a pilot stage governed by a solenoid, fast-acting, three-way valve. Valve lift is controlled by varying the oil pressure of the power stage. The system exploits an energy recovery working principle that plays a significant role in reducing the power demand of the whole valve train. In the present paper a new HVC actuator design is presented and its performances in terms of valve lift profile, repeatability and landing are discussed. Experimental data obtained by the application of the HVC system to a motored, single-cylinder research engine have been used to support the numerical evaluation of the potentialities of non-conventional valve actuation in engine part-load operation.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessment of a Novel Instrument for the Injection Rate Measurement of Port Fuel Injectors in Realistic Operating Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0830
In the present paper an innovative approach for the shot-to-shot hydraulic characterization of low pressure injection systems is experimentally assessed. The proposed methodology is an inverse application of the Zeuch’s method, which in this case is applied to a closed volume upstream the injector instead of downstream of it as in conventional injection analyzers. By this approach, the well-known constraint of having a finite volume pressurized with the injected liquid downstream the injector is circumvented. As a consequence, with the proposed instrument low pressure injectors - such as PFI, fed with gasoline or water, SCR injectors - can operate with the prescribed upstream-downstream pressure differential. Further, the injector can spray directly in atmosphere or in any ambient at arbitrary pressure and temperature conditions, allowing the simultaneous application of other diagnostics such as imaging, momentum flux measurement or sizing instruments.
Technical Paper

AUS-32 Injector Spray Imaging on Hot Air Flow Bench

2015-04-14
2015-01-1031
The recent implementation of new rounds of stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reduction legislation in Europe and North America is driving the expanded use of exhaust aftertreatment systems, including those that treat NOx under the high-oxygen conditions typical of lean-burn engines. One of the favored aftertreatment solutions is referred to as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which comprises a catalyst that facilitates the reactions of ammonia (NH3) with the exhaust nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is customary with these systems to generate the NH3 by injecting a liquid aqueous urea solution, typically at a 32% concentration of urea (CO(NH2)2). The solution is referred to as AUS-32, and is also known under its commercial name of AdBlue® in Europe, and DEF - Diesel Exhaust Fluid - in the USA. The urea solution is injected into the exhaust and transformed to NH3 by various mechanisms for the SCR reactions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Fuel and Injector Body Temperature Effect on the Hydraulic Behavior of Latest Generation Common Rail Injection Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0282
The present paper describes the effect of thermal conditions on the hydraulic behavior of Diesel common rail injectors, with a particular focus on low temperatures for fuel and injector body. The actual injection system thermal state can significantly influence both the injected quantity and the injection shape, requiring proper amendments to the base engine calibration in order to preserve the combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions levels. In particular, the introduction of the RDE (Real Driving Emission) test cycle widens the effective ambient temperature range for the homologation cycle, this way stressing the importance of the thermal effects analysis. An experimental test bench was developed in order to characterize the injector in an engine-like configuration, i.e. fuel pump, piping, common rail, pressure control system and injectors.
Technical Paper

Experimental High Temperature Analysis of a Low-Pressure Diesel Spray for DPF Regeneration

2019-09-09
2019-24-0035
In the current automotive scenario, particulate filter technology is mandatory in order to attain emission limits in terms of particulate matter for diesel engines. Despite the fact that the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is often considered a mature technology, significant issues can result from the use of the engine fuel injectors to introduce into the exhaust pipe the fuel needed to ignite the particulate matter accumulated in the filter during its regeneration. The most important issue is lubricant oil dilution with fuel as a consequence of significant spray impact on the cylinder liner. As an alternative, the fuel required to start DPF regeneration can be introduced in the exhaust pipe by an auxiliary low-pressure injector spraying in the hot exhaust gas stream.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Latest Generation Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0142
A comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of two state-of-the-art diesel AfterTreatment Systems (ATS) for automotive applications is presented in this work. Both systems, designed to fulfill Euro 6 emissions regulations standards, consist of a closed-coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also known as SCR on Filter (SCRoF or SCRF). While the two systems feature the same Urea Water Solution (UWS) injector, major differences could be observed in the UWS mixing device, which is placed upstream of the SCRoF, whose design represents a crucial challenge due to the severe flow uniformity and compact packaging requirements.
X