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Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1184
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Flow Structure Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Gasoline Engine

1995-02-01
950784
The flow structure inside the catalytic converter of gasoline engines is very important for consideration of the catalyst light-off condition, converter durability and conversion efficiency. However, the available experimental data under actual engine exhaust conditions are quite limited due to its complicated configuration, critical operating conditions and difficult optical access. Therefore, an experimental study was performed, using laser Doppler velocimetry technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside two production dual-monolith catalytic converters fitted on a firing gasoline engine over several engine operating conditions. This paper reports the normal velocity characteristics measured in a plane 1 mm away from the front surface of first monolith. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline for generating titanium dioxide seeding particles during the engine combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Dual-Fuel-CI and Single-Fuel-SI Engine Combustion Fueled with CNG

2016-04-05
2016-01-0789
With increasing interest to reduce the dependency on gasoline and diesel, alternative energy source like compressed natural gas (CNG) is a viable option for internal combustion engines. Spark-ignited (SI) CNG engine is the simplest way to utilize CNG in engines, but direct injection (DI) Diesel-CNG dual-fuel engine is known to offer improvement in combustion efficiency and reduction in exhaust gases. Dual-fuel engine has characteristics similar to both SI engine and diesel engine which makes the combustion process more complex. This paper reports the computational fluid dynamics simulation of both DI dual-fuel compression ignition (CI) and SI CNG engines. In diesel-CNG dual-fuel engine simulations and comparison to experiments, attention was on ignition delay, transition from auto-ignition to flame propagation and heat released from the combustion of diesel and gaseous fuel, as well as relevant pollutants emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in an Optical Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0262
Three jet fuel surrogates were compared against their target fuels in a compression ignited optical engine under a range of start-of-injection temperatures and densities. The jet fuel surrogates are representative of petroleum-based Jet-A POSF-4658, natural gas-derived S-8 POSF-4734 and coal-derived Sasol IPK POSF-5642, and were prepared from a palette of n-dodecane, n-decane, decalin, toluene, iso-octane and iso-cetane. Optical chemiluminescence and liquid penetration length measurements as well as cylinder pressure-based combustion analyses were applied to examine fuel behavior during the injection and combustion process. HCHO* emissions obtained from broadband UV imaging were used as a marker for low temperature reactivity, while 309 nm narrow band filtered imaging was applied to identify the occurrence of OH*, autoignition and high temperature reactivity.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ignition Energy with Visualization on a Spark Ignited Engine powered by CNG

2014-04-01
2014-01-1331
The need for using alternative fuel sources continues to grow as industry looks towards enhancing energy security and lowering emissions levels. In order to capture the potential of these megatrends, this study focuses on the relationship between ignition energy, thermal efficiency, and combustion stability of a 0.5 L single cylinder engine powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) at steady state operation. The goal of the experiment was to increase ignition energy at fixed lambda values to look for gains in thermal efficiency. Secondly, a lambda sweep was performed with criteria of maintaining a 4% COVIMEP by increasing the ignition energy until an appropriate threshold for stable combustion was found. The engine performance was measured with a combustion analysis system (CAS), to understand the effects of thermal efficiency and combustion stability (COVIMEP). Emissions of the engine were measured with an FTIR.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Study of Liquid Fuel Distribution and Combustion Inside a Port-Injected Gasoline Engine Under Different Start Conditions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0242
High-speed video of combustion processes and cylinder pressure traces were obtained from a single-cylinder optical-accessible engine with a production four-valve cylinder head to study the mixture formation and flame propagation characteristics at near-stoichiometric start condition. Laser-sheet Mie-scattering images were collected for liquid droplet distributions inside the cylinder to correlate the mixture formation process with the combustion results. A dual-stream (DS) injector and a quad-stream (QS) injector were used to study the spray dispersion effect on engine starting, under different injection timings, throttle valve positions, engine speeds, and intake temperatures. It was found that most of the fuel under open-valve injection (OVI) conditions entered the cylinder as droplet mist. A significant part of the fuel droplets hit the far end of the cylinder wall at the exhaust-valve side.
Technical Paper

Combustion Visualization of DI Diesel Spray Combustion inside a Small-Bore Cylinder under different EGR and Swirl Ratios

2001-05-07
2001-01-2005
An experimental setup using rapid compression machine to provide excellent optical access to visualize simulated high-speed small-bore direct injection diesel engine combustion processes is described. Typical combustion visualization results of diesel spray combustion under different EGR, swirl, and injection pressure and nozzle conditions are presented. Different swirl intensities are achieved using an air nozzle with variable orientations and a check valve to connect the compression chamber and the combustion chamber. Different EGR ratios are achieved by pre-injection of diesel fuel prior to the main observation sequence. Clear visualization of the high-pressure fuel injection, ignition, combustion and spray/wall/swirl interactions is obtained. The injection system is a high-pressure common-rail system with either a VCO or a mini-sac nozzle. High-speed movies up to 35,000 frame-per-second are taken using a framing drum camera to record the combustion events.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2919
Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Spray Structure from Automotive Port Injectors

1994-10-01
941873
Port fuel injection system in gasoline engines is receiving an increasing attention for its potential advantages in meeting the constrains of simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emission, and maintaining a good engine performance. The structure of port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. In this paper, an experimental and analytical study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and atomization process of the non-air-assisted port injector sprays in gasoline engines. The liquid sprays resulted from various types of current and development-type automotive fuel injectors were visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique. A comparison was made on the spray structure of the single hole and multi-hole injectors.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Impact of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations on the Ionic Current Signal in SI Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1943
The applicability of the Ionic Current sensing method in production application is severely limited by the extent of cycle-to-cycle variations in the signal trace. In an attempt to investigate the sources for these cyclic signal fluctuations, experiments were conducted on a single cylinder 4-stroke, propane-operated engine. The ionic current signal was measured at two locations. The flame development phase in the vicinity of the spark plug gap was optically monitored by means of a high-speed CCD camera. The results showed that only the second part of the Ionic Current signal is directly impacted by cyclic variations in combustion parameters. The optical results provided evidence that the characteristics of the early flame development phase have a strong impact on the features in the first part of the signal.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines

1995-10-01
952366
An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study. The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process.
Technical Paper

A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

1997-02-24
970627
The current extensive revisitation of the application of gasoline direct-injection to automotive, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines has been prompted by the availability of technological capabilities that did not exist in the late 1970s, and that can now be utilized in the engine development process. The availability of new engine hardware that permits an enhanced level of computer control and dynamic optimization has alleviated many of the system limitations that were encountered in the time period from 1976 to 1984, when the capabilities of direct-injection, stratified-charge, spark-ignition engines were thoroughly researched. This paper incorporates a critical review of the current worldwide research and development activities in the gasoline direct-injection field, and provides insight into new areas of technology that are being applied to the development of both production and prototype engines.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow Characteristics Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Firing Gasoline Engine

1997-02-24
971014
An experimental study was performed, using cycle-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique, to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside a catalytic converter retro-fitted to a firing four-cylinder gasoline engine over different operating conditions. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for LDV measurements. It was found that in the front plane of the catalytic monolith, the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. Under unloaded condition, four pairs of major peaks are clearly observed in the time history of the velocity, which correspond to the main exhaust events of each individual cylinder.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of High Pressure Diesel Spray and Engine Combustion

1999-10-25
1999-01-3496
An experimental study was carried out to visualize the spray and combustion inside an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access. The injection system was a hydraulically-amplified electronically-controlled unit injector capable of high injection pressure up to 180 MPa and injection rate shaping. The injection characteristics were carefully characterized with injection rate meter and with spray visualization in high-pressure chamber. The intake air was supplied by a compressor and heated with a 40kW electrical heater to simulate turbocharged intake condition. In addition to injection and cylinder pressure measurements, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process. The results showed that optically accessible engines provide very useful information for studying the diesel combustion conditions, which also provided a very critical test for diesel combustion models.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle hole Geometry on a HSDI Diesel Engine-Out Emissions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0704
The combustion and emission characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated using two different nozzles, a 430-VCO (0.171mm) and a 320 Mini sac (0.131mm). The experiments were conducted at conditions that represent a key point in the operation of a diesel engine in an electric hybrid vehicle (1500 rpm and light load condition). The experiments covered fuel injection pressures ranging from 400 to 1000 bar and EGR ratios ranging from 0 to 50%. The effects of nozzle hole geometry on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER, ARHR), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated.
Technical Paper

New Integrated “O.P.E.R.A.S.” Strategies for Low Emissions in HSDI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0261
Integrated control strategies for the O.P.E.R.A.S. (Optimization of injection Pressure, EGR ratio, injection Retard or Advance and Swirl ratio) are demonstrated. The strategies are based on an investigation of combustion and emissions in a small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system and is tested under simulated turbocharged engine conditions at two loads and speeds that represent two key operating points in a medium size HEV vehicle. A new phenomenological model is developed for the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber and the fractions that are injected prior to the development of the flame, injected in the flame or deposited on the walls. The investigation covered the effect of the different operating parameters on the fuel distribution, combustion and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Analysis of PFI-SI Engine for Fuel Economy Improvement

2005-10-24
2005-01-3691
Variable Valve Timing (VVT) strategy on both intake and exhaust valves has a pivotal influence on the specific fuel consumptions and engine performance. In addition to this, fuel economy can also be enhanced by the application of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) strategy. This paper presents three possible strategies to enhance fuel economy improvement: A possible VVT strategy Early Intake Valve Opening (EIVO) and Late Exhaust Valve Closure (LEVC) that alters the valve overlap to reduce fuel consumption A two-position VCR system that improves fuel conversion factor to realize fuel economy A strategy that combines above two technologies to produce a complementary effect on fuel economy All three strategies have been tested on a 1.8L DOHC four cylinder PFI engine. AVL BOOST a 1D engine gas exchange and cycle simulation code was used to model this engine to get fuel economy gains at part-load points.
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