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Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engine and its Use for 2- and 4-Valve Engine Matching Studies

A quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the turbocharged spark-ignition engine has been developed in order to study system performance as various design parameters and operating conditions are varied. The simulation is of the “filling and emptying” type. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, intercooler, manifolds, turbine, wastegate, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder engine model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. A turbulent entrainment model of the combustion process is used, thus allowing for studies of the effects of various combustion chamber shapes and turbulence parameters on cylinder pressure, temperature, NOx emissions and overall engine performance. Valve open areas are determined either based on user supplied valve lift data or using polydyne-generated cam profiles which allow for variable valve timing studies.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Vehicle Powertrain Simulation for Fuel Economy and Performance Studies

A personal computer-based vehicle powertrain simulation (VPS) is developed to predict fuel economy and performance. This paper summarizes the governing equations used in the model. Then the different simulation techniques are described with emphasis on the more complicated time-dependent simulation. The simulation is validated against constant speed and variable cycle test track data obtained for a 5 ton army truck. Then the simulation is used to compare the performance of the 5 ton truck when powered by a cooled and natually aspirated engine, a cooled and turbocharged engine, and an uncooled and turbocharged engine. Studies of the effect of payload, tire efficiency, and drag coefficient on vehicle performance are also conducted, as well as a performance comparison between manual and automatic transmissions. It is concluded that the VPS code can provide good predictions of vehicle fuel economy, and thus is a useful tool in designing and evaluating vehicle powertrains.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

An Early-Design Methodology for Predicting Transient Fuel Economy and Catalyst-Out Exhaust Emissions

An early-design methodology for predicting both expected fuel economy and catalyst-out CO, HC and NOx concentrations during arbitrarily-defined transient cycles is presented. The methodology is based on utilizing a vehicle-powertrain model with embedded maps of fully warmed up engine-out performance and emissions, and appropriate temperature-dependent correction factors to account for not fully warmed up conditions during transients. Similarly, engine-out emissions are converted to catalyst-out emissions using conversion efficiencies based on the catalyst brick temperature. A crucial element of the methodology is hence the ability to predict heat flows and component temperatures in the engine and the exhaust system during transients, consistent with the data available during concept definition and early design phases.
Technical Paper

Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In

This study investigates the impact of transient engine operation on the emissions formed during a tip-in procedure. A medium-duty production V-8 diesel engine is used to conduct experiments in which the rate of pedal position change is varied. Highly-dynamic emissions instrumentation is implemented to provide real-time measurement of NOx and particulate. Engine subsystems are analyzed to understand their role in emissions formation. As the rate of pedal position change increases, the emissions of NOx and particulates are affected dramatically. An instantaneous load increase was found to produce peak NOx values 1.8 times higher and peak particulate concentrations an order of magnitude above levels corresponding to a five-second ramp-up. The results provide insight into relationship between driver aggressiveness and diesel emissions applicable to development of drive-by-wire systems. In addition, they provide direct guidance for devising low-emission strategies for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Dual-Use Engine Calibration:

Modern diesel engines manufactured for commercial vehicles are calibrated to meet EPA emissions regulations. Many of the technologies and strategies typically incorporated to meet emissions targets compromise engine performance and efficiency. When used in military applications, however, engine performance and efficiency are of utmost importance in combat conditions or in remote locations where fuel supplies are scarce. This motivates the study of the potential to utilize the flexibility of emissions-reduction technologies toward optimizing engine performance while still keeping the emissions within tolerable limits. The study was conducted on a modern medium-duty International V-8 diesel engine with variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The performance-emissions tradeoffs were explored using design of experiments and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Design Under Uncertainty and Assessment of Performance Reliability of a Dual-Use Medium Truck with Hydraulic-Hybrid Powertrain and Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

Medium trucks constitute a large market segment of the commercial transportation sector, and are also used widely for military tactical operations. Recent technological advances in hybrid powertrains and fuel cell auxiliary power units have enabled design alternatives that can improve fuel economy and reduce emissions dramatically. However, deterministic design optimization of these configurations may yield designs that are optimal with respect to performance but raise concerns regarding the reliability of achieving that performance over lifetime. In this article we identify and quantify uncertainties due to modeling approximations or incomplete information. We then model their propagation using Monte Carlo simulation and perform sensitivity analysis to isolate statistically significant uncertainties. Finally, we formulate and solve a series of reliability-based optimization problems and quantify tradeoffs between optimality and reliability.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Test Setup for Investigation of Water-Deposit Interaction in a Surrogate Rectangular Cooler Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Flow

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOx emissions. The presence of a cool surface in the hot exhaust causes particulate soot deposition as well as hydrocarbon and water condensation. Fouling experienced through deposition of particulate matter and hydrocarbons results in degraded cooler effectiveness and increased pressure drop. In this study, a visualization test setup is designed and constructed so that the effect of water condensation on the deposit formation and growth at various coolant temperatures can be studied. A water-cooled surrogate rectangular channel is employed to represent the EGR cooler. One side of the channel is made of glass for visualization purposes. A medium duty diesel engine is used to generate the exhaust stream.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Regenerative Braking Model for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A regenerative braking model for a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is developed in this work. This model computes the line and pad pressures for the front and rear brakes, the amount of generator use depending on the state of deceleration (i.e. the brake pedal position), and includes a wheel lock-up avoidance algorithm. The regenerative braking model has been developed in the symbolic programming environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK/STATEFLOW for downloadability to an actual HEV's control system. The regenerative braking model has been incorporated in NREL's HEV system simulation called ADVISOR. Code modules that have been changed to implement the new regenerative model are described. Resulting outputs are compared to the baseline regenerative braking model in the parent code. The behavior of the HEV system (battery state of charge, overall fuel economy, and emissions characteristics) with the baseline and the proposed regenerative braking strategy are first compared.
Journal Article

Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Biodiesel and Blends in a High Speed Compression Ignition Engine

The effects of combining premixed, low temperature combustion (LTC) with biodiesel are relatively unknown to this point. This mode allows simultaneously low soot and NOx emissions by using high rates of EGR and increasing ignition delay. This paper compares engine performance and emissions of neat, soy-based methyl ester biodiesel (B100), B20, B50, pure ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a Swedish, low aromatic diesel in a multi-cylinder diesel engine operating in a late-injection premixed LTC mode. Using heat release analysis, the progression of LTC combustion was explored by comparing fuel mass fraction burned. B100 had a comparatively long ignition delay compared with Swedish diesel when measured by start of ignition (SOI) to 10% fuel mass fraction burned (CA10). Differences were not as apparent when measured by SOI to start of combustion (SOC) even though their cetane numbers are comparable.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.