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Technical Paper

The Potential for Thermo-Electric Regeneration of Energy in Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1333
The pursuit of improved fuel economy is becoming an increasingly important objective for automotive manufacturers. The field of thermo-electrics is highlighted as a promising technology. The figure of merit, Z is the primary measure of the effectiveness of a thermo-electric material, and the values now being offered by researchers have reached the level where new applications become attractive. It is feasible to consider such modules incorporated into a thermoelectric generator to recover waste heat from exhaust gas flow – an available energy stream that has traditionally been neglected as unusable. As a precursor to a costly experimental study it is desirable to accurately simulate the application of a thermo-electric system to a vehicle exhaust to understand both the feasibility and potential drawbacks.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Thermoelectric Generator in Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0189
This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
Technical Paper

Heat Recovery and Bottoming Cycles for SI and CI Engines - A Perspective

2006-04-03
2006-01-0662
The pursuit of fuel economy is forcing technology change across the range of control and engine management technologies. Improved thermal management has been addressed in order to promote fast warm-up, improved exhaust gas after-treatment performance, and lower variance in combustion through a consistent and high cylinder head temperature. Temperature management of exhaust gas is of increasing interest because of the need to maintain efficiency in after-treatment devices. More effective temperature management places requirements on heat exchange systems, and offers the potential for bottoming and heat recovery cycles that use energy transferred from the exhaust stream. Turbo-compounding is already established in heavy duty engines, where a reduction in exhaust gas temperature is the consequence of an additional stage of expansion through an exhaust turbine. A new project in electric turbo-compounding offers flexibility in the control of energy extracted from the exhaust stream[1].
Technical Paper

Energy Recovery Systems for Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0309
Energy recovery from IC engines has proved to be of considerable interest across the range of vehicle applications. The motivation is substantial fuel economy gain that can be achieved with a minimal affect on the “host” technology of the vehicle. This paper reviews the initial results of a research project whose objective has been to identify system concepts and control methods for thermal recovery techniques. A vapour power cycle is the means of energy transfer. The architecture of the system is considered along with support of the fuel economy claims with the results of some hybrid vehicle modelling. An overview of the latest experimental equipment and design of the heat exchanger is presented. The choice of control architecture and strategy, whose goal is overall efficiency of the engine system, is presented and discussed. Some initial control results are presented.
Technical Paper

The Controllability of Vapour Based Thermal Recovery Systems in Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0270
The idea of thermal energy recovery from vehicle engine exhaust flow is now well supported and funded. Through a number of research projects, several component technologies have been identified. Rankine cycle, turbo-compounding and thermo-electric systems have all attracted interest. Fuel economy improvements vary depending on the drive cycle and the capability of the underlying technologies, but have been reported as high as 25%. Our work at Sussex on a form of Rankine cycle has revealed generic issues about the control of thermal recovery and the associated modelling requirements. Typical issues include the balancing the rate of heat input to the recovery system with the loss of useful work from large temperature differences. The size of components dictates the control authority over the system and consequently its ability to follow changing conditions.
Journal Article

Accurate and Continuous Fuel Flow Rate Measurement Prediction for Real Time Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-1303
One of the most critical challenges currently facing the diesel engine industry is how to improve fuel economy under emission regulations. Improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by precisely controlling Air/Fuel ratio and by monitoring fuel consumption in real time. Accurate and repeatable measurements of fuel rate play a critical role in successfully controlling air/fuel ratio and in monitoring fuel consumption. Volumetric and gravimetric measurements are well-known methods for measuring fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, these methods are not suitable for obtaining fuel flow rate data used in real-time control/measurement. In this paper, neural networks are used to solve the problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733 s fuel meter. The continuous parts of discontinuous fuel flow rate are used to train and validate a neural network, which can then be used to predict the discontinuous parts of the fuel flow rate.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Spray/Wall Interaction Models under the Conditions Related to Diesel HCCI Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1632
Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with early injection can result in significant spray/wall impingement which seriously affects the fuel efficiency and emissions. In this paper, the spray/wall interaction models which are available in the literatures are reviewed, and the characteristics of modeling including spray impingement regime, splash threshold, mass fraction, size and velocity of the second droplets are summarized. Then three well developed spray/wall interaction models, O'Rourke and Amsden (OA) model, Bai and Gosman (BG) model and Han, Xu and Trigui (HXT) model, are implemented into KIVA-3V code, and validated by the experimental data from recent literatures under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. By comparing the spray pattern, droplet mass, size and velocity after the impingement, the thickness of the wall film and vapor distribution with the experimental data, the performance of these three models are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Gas Concentrations in a Three-Way Catalyst for On-Board Diagnostic Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0054
The process of controlling tailpipe emissions leads to the need to understand the dynamic behaviour of the after-treatment devices. The model provides the basis for design prediction, on-line diagnosis and real time control. Although a number of models have been presented in the literature, their efficient performance continues to require further development and validation to meet increasingly demanding requirements. Models have been developed that use the basic physical framework including thermal behaviour, fluid mechanics and basic chemistries. As more demands are placed on models, more phenomena need to be taken into account and in particular, progressively more of the chemistry of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) itself. In this paper we present a black-box model for a three-way catalytic converter that has been developed and tested using real experimental data.
Journal Article

Design and Optimisation of the Propulsion Control Strategy for a Pneumatic Hybrid City Bus

2016-04-05
2016-01-1175
A control strategy has been designed for a city bus equipped with a pneumatic hybrid propulsion system. The control system design is based on the precise management of energy flows during both energy storage and regeneration. Energy recovered from the braking process is stored in the form of compressed air that is redeployed for engine start and to supplement the engine air supply during vehicle acceleration. Operation modes are changed dynamically and the energy distribution is controlled to realize three principal functions: Stop-Start, Boost and Regenerative Braking. A forward facing simulation model facilitates an analysis of the vehicle dynamic performance, engine transient response, fuel economy and energy usage.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Emissions by Variable Compression Ratio Using GT-Power Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-1113
Variable compression ratio in conjunction with a control system is an effective way to improve performance and reduce emissions in a diesel engine. There are various methods that may be employed that include geometry changes and varying valve timing to change the effective compression ratio. In this paper, a simulation study is presented that is based on a modern, multi-cylinder, fixed compression ratio diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The engine is represented using the GT-Power code, and includes a predictive combustion model. The aim of the investigation is to identify the impact of variable compression ratio on fuel economy and emission reduction and whether realistic optimal conditions exist. This paper describes how a formal design of experiments procedure is used to define the simulation conditions. Cost functions are defined with different weights for fuel consumption, NOx and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of NOx Emissions of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a NLARX Model

2009-11-02
2009-01-2796
This work describes the application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Inputs (NLARX) in order to predict the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Two experiments are presented: 1.) a Non-Road-Transient-Cycle (NRTC) 2.) a composition of different engine operation modes and different engine calibrations. Data sets are pre-processed by normalization and re-arranged into training and validation sets. The chosen model is taken from the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox using the algorithms provided. It is teacher forced trained and then validated. Training results show recognizable performance. However, the validation shows the potential of the chosen method.
Technical Paper

Disturbance Sources in the Diesel Engine Combustion Process

2013-04-08
2013-01-0318
When a diesel engine is running at steady state, the diesel combustion process still has some level of variation from cycle to cycle, even if engine load and all control inputs are fixed. This variation is a disturbance for the speed governor, and it could lead to less than optimal engine performance in terms of fuel economy, exhaust gas emission and noise emission. The most effective way to reduce this steady state combustion variation is by applying fuel path feedback control. The control action can be performed at a fixed frequency, or at a defined cycle event time. Intra-cycle control has the highest capacity to suppress the combustion deviation, as it measures the current cycle combustion performance and compensates for it within the same cycle using a very fast control response. Correct knowledge and a model of the disturbance sources and combustion variation patterns are essential in the design process of this intra-cycle control strategy.
Technical Paper

Explicit Model Predictive Control of the Diesel Engine Fuel Path

2012-04-16
2012-01-0893
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Potential of Intra-Cycle Combustion Control for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1158
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization of Regenerative Braking Control Strategy in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine City Bus using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology

2014-04-01
2014-01-1807
Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of a vehicle which is subject to frequent braking events such as a city bus. As one way to achieve this goal, pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into tanks during braking, and then reuses the compressed air to power an air starter to realize a regenerative Stop-Start function. Unlike the pure electric or hybrid electric passenger car, the pneumatic hybrid city bus uses the rear axle to achieve regenerative braking function. In this paper we discuss research into the blending of pneumatic regenerative braking and mechanical frictional braking at the rear axle. The aim of the braking function is to recover as much energy as possible and at the same time distribute the total braking effort between the front and rear axles to achieve stable braking performance.
Journal Article

Real-Time Optimal Energy Management of Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1748
The performance of energy flow management strategies is essential for the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which are considered amongst the most promising solutions for improving fuel economy as well as reducing exhaust emissions. The heavy duty HEVs engaged in cycles characterized by start-stop configuration has attracted widely interests, especially in off-road applications. In this paper, a fuzzy equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for heavy duty HEVs. The online optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function, in terms of weighted fuel power and electrical power. A fuzzy rule-based approach is applied on the weight tuning within the cost function, with respect to the variations of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and elapsed time.
Journal Article

Input and Structure Choices of Neural Networks on the Fuel Flow Rate Prediction in the Transient Operation Condition

2012-11-01
2011-01-2458
Measurement accuracy and repeatability for fuel rate is the key to successfully improve fuel economy of diesel engines as fuel economy could only be achieve by precisely controlling air/fuel ratio and monitor real-time fuel consumption. The volumetric and gravimetric measurement principles are well-known methods to measure the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, the fuel flow rate measured by these methods is not suitable for either real-time control or real-time measurement purposes. The problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733s fuel meter was solved for the steady state scenario by using neural networks. It is easier to choose inputs of the neural networks for the steady state scenario because the inputs could be chosen as the particular inputs which excited the system in the application.
Technical Paper

BSFC Investigation Using Variable Valve Timing in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1525
Variable valve actuation in heavy duty diesel engines is not well documented, because of diesel engine feature, such as, unthrottled air handling, which gives little room to improve pumping loss; a very high compression ratio, which makes the clearance between the piston and valve small at the top dead center. In order to avoid strike the piston while maximizing the valve movement scope, different strategies are adopted in this paper: (1) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, exhaust valve opening is changed; (2) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, late exhaust valve opening: (3) While inlet valve opening is fixed, inlet valve closing is changed; (4) Delayed Inlet valve and exhaust valve openings and closings; (5) Changing exhaust valve timing; (6) changing inlet valve timing; (7) Changing both inlet and exhaust timing, will be used.
Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
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