Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Simultaneous Reduction of Particulate and NOx by Controlling Both the Turbulence and the Mixture Formation in DI Diesel Engines

1993-10-01
932797
This paper presents experimental results of the reduction of both particulate and NOx emitted from direct injection diesel engines by a two stage combustion process. The primary combustion is made very rich to reduce NOx and then the particulate is oxidized by strong turbulence generated during the secondary combustion. The rich mixture is formed by low pressure fuel injection and a small cavity combustion chamber configuration. The strong turbulence is generated by a jet of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed at the cylinder head. The results showed that NOx was reduced significantly while maintaining fuel consumption and particulate emissions. An investigation was also carried out on the particulate reduction process in the combustion chamber with the turbulence by gas sampling and in-cylinder observation with an optical fiber scope and a high speed camera.
Technical Paper

Analysis of NO Formation Characteristics and Control Concepts in Diesel Engines from NO Reaction-Kinetic Considerations

1995-02-01
950215
This paper uses NO Reaction Kinetic to determine NO formation characteristics in diesel engines. The NO formation was calculated by Extended Zel'dovich Reaction Kinetics in a diffusion process. The results show that the NO formation rate is independent of the mixing of the combustion gas, and that internal EGR (combustion gas mixing in a cylinder) has no effect on NO reduction. The paper also shows the potential of two stage combustion, and its effect strongly depends on the time-scale of mixing. Additionally the paper investigates the mechanism of increased NOx emissions in high pressure fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Combustion Difficulties in a Glow Plug-Assisted Diesel Engine Operated with Pure Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

1983-02-01
830373
Forced ignition with glow plugs has great potential for the utilization of alcohol fuels in diesel engines. However, the installation of glow plugs may cause misfiring or knocking in parts of the operating range. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a glow plug-assisted diesel engine; these factors may be classified into two categories: the factors related to the temperature history of the drop lets before contact with the glow plug, and those related to the probability of contact. By optimizing these factors, the combustion difficulties were successfully eliminated over the whole operating range, and engine performance comparable with conventional diesel operation was achieved.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flash Boiling Fuel Injection on Spray Characteristics” Combustion, and Engine Performance in DI and IDI Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850071
This paper deals with the effects of flash-boiling injection of various kinds of fuels on spray characteristics, combustion, and engine performance in DI and IDI diesel engines. It is known that spray characteristics change dramatically at the boiling point of fuel. When the fuel temperature increases above the boiling point, the droplet size decreases apparently and the spray spreads much wider. At higher fuel temperatures, above the boiling point, the apparent effects are a lower smoke density and improved thermal efficiency at higher loads, resulting from the shorter combustion duration; it is thus possible to obtain a markedly improved engine performance in engines with a low air-utilization chamber. Remarkable changes in heat release with the increase in fuel temperature are; an increase in premised combustion quantity and shortening of the combustion duration. The changes in smoke emission and thermal efficiency for different engine types are also considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Description and Analysis of Diesel Engine Rate of Combustion and Performance Using Wiebe's Functions

1985-02-01
850107
Two laboratory engines, one direct, injection and one indirect injection, were operated for a range of speeds, loads, injection timings, fuels, and steady and transient conditions. Rate of combustion data were derived and analyzed using a double Wiebe's function approximation. It is shown that three of the six function parameters are constant for a wide range of conditions and that the other three can be expressed as linear functions of the amount of fuel injected during ignition lag. Engine noise, smoke, and thermal efficiency correlate with the parameters describing the amount of premixed combustion and diffusive combustion duration. These characteristics may be optimized by reducing the quantity of premixed combustion while maintaining the duration of diffusive combustion to less than 60°CA.
Technical Paper

Low Carbon Flower Buildup, Low Smoke, and Efficient Diesel Operation with Vegetable Oils by Conversion to Mono-Esters and Blending with Diesel Oil or Alcohols

1984-09-01
841161
The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated D.I. diesel engine, and also to find means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits were measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. It was found that both of the vegetable oil fuels generated an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they caused carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion and Injection Systems on Unburnt HC and Particulate Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

1986-09-01
861232
This paper is a systematic investigation of the effects of combustion and injection systems on hydrocarbon(HC) and particulate emissions from a DI diesel engine. Piston cavity diameter, swirl ratio, number of injection nozzle openings, and injection direction are varied as the experimental parameters, and the constituents in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate were analyzed. The results show that the emission characteristics of deep dish chambers greatly differ from those of shallow dish chambers varying with the number of nozzle openings, the injection direction, and swirl intensity. The HC analysis shows mainly low carbon number gaseous HC constituents, and there is a tendency towards increasing polynucleation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) in SOF with increasing soot formation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

1987-09-01
871612
Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Super Heating of Heavy Fuels on Combustion and Performance in DI Diesel Engines

1986-02-01
860306
This paper is concerned with the effects of temperature of heavy fuels on combustion and engine performance in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were measured for rapeseed oil, B-heavy oil, and diesel fuel at fuel temperatures from 40°C to 400°C. With increased fuel temperature, mainly from improved efficiency of combustion there were significant reductions in the specific energy consumption and smoke emissions. It was found that the improvements were mainly a function of the fuel viscosity, and it was independent of the kind of fuel. The optimum temperature of the fuels with regard to specific energy consumption and smoke emission is about 90°C for diesel fuel, 240°C for B-heavy oil, and 300°C for rapeseed oil. At these temperatures, the viscosities of the fuels show nearly identical value, 0.9 - 3 cst. The optimum viscosity tends to increase slightly with increases in the swirl ratio in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

W/O Emulsion Realizes Low Smoke and Efficient Operation of DI Engines without High Pressure injection

1989-02-01
890449
To improve engine performance parameters such as smoke, NOx, and BSFC in a DI diesel engine, water-in-gas oil emulsified fuel was used without high pressure or high injection rate. It was confirmed that when compared with high pressure and high injection rate operation with gas oil, emulsified fuel gives significant reductions in NOx concentration, improved fuel economy, and reduced smoke density at ordinary injection pressure and retarded timings.
Technical Paper

A Quantitative Analysis of Schlieren Photography for an Internal Combustion Engine Diagnostics

1991-02-01
910730
This report describes the possibility of quantitative analysis of Schlieren photographs as an internal combustion engine diagnostic. Using a recently developed photographic analysis system, it was attempted to analyze Schlieren photographs. Results showed simple integration calculations produced significant distortion in the analyzed results. To eliminate the distortion, some correction techniques were developed in this research. Accuracy of the analyzed results were evaluated roughly with uncertainty analysis. The results showed that this analysis technique can be one of the approximate diagnostics for the measurement of fuel vapor and density distribution in internal combustion engine research. SCHLIEREN photography is one of the most popular visualization techniques in the research of internal combustion engines. Although the photographs have density information in themselves, they are used mainly for the purpose of qualitative visualization.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Actual Diesel Engine Exhaust

1992-02-01
920091
Copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, which reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of oxygen and hydrocarbons, was applied to actual diesel engine exhaust. Copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite effectively reduced NOx by 25% in normal engine operation, and by 80% when hydrocarbons in the exhaust were increased. Water in the exhaust gas decreased the NOx reduction efficiency, but oxygen and sulfur appeared to have only a small effect. Maximum NOx reduction was observed at 400°C irrespective of hydrocarbon species, and did not decrease with space velocity up to values of 20,000 1/h. THE PURPOSE of this paper is to evaluate the possibilities and problems in catalytic reduction of NOx in actual diesel engine exhaust. Here, a copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite (Cu-Z) catalyst was applied to diesel engine exhaust to examine the dependency of the NOx reduction efficiency on temperature and space velocity. The effects of oxygen, water and hydrocarbons were also examined.
Technical Paper

Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results

1992-02-01
920465
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the possibility of combustion similarity in differently sized diesel engines. Combustion similarity means that the flow pattern and flame distribution develop similarly in differently sized engines. The study contributes to an understanding and correlating of data which are presently limited to specific engine designs. The theoretical consideration shows the possibility of combustion similarity, and the similarity conditions were identified. To verify the theory, a comparison of experimental data from real engines was performed; and a comparison of results of a three dimensional computer simulation for different engine sizes was also attempted. The results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions. THE PURPOSE of this research is to determine the possibility of the existence of combustion similarity in differently sized diesel engines, and to propose conditions for realizing model experiments.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Smoke and NOx by Strong Turbulence Generated During the Combustion Process in D.I. Diesel Engines

1992-02-01
920467
This paper presents results of experiments to reduce smoke emitted from direct Injection diesel engines by strong turbulence generated during the combustion process. The turbulence was created by jets of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed in the cylinder head. Strong turbulence, which was induced late in the combustion period, enhanced the mixing of air with unburned fuel and soot, resulting in a remarkable reduction of smoke and particulate; NOx did not show any increase with this system, and thermal efficiency was improved at high loads. The paper also shows that the combination of EGR and water injection with this system effectively reduces the both smoke and NOx.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of NOx Reduction by Ethanol on a Silver-Base Catalyst

2001-05-07
2001-01-1935
Since there is a trade-off relationship between NOx and particulates in exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine, simultaneous reduction of the amounts of NOx and particulates in a combustion chamber is difficult. However, the amount of particulates produced in the combustion process could be reduced in a state of almost complete combustion, and the amount of NOx produced during the combustion process could be reduced by the use of a catalyst and reducing agent in the exhaust process. It has been demonstrated that the use of ethanol as a reducing agent on a silver-base catalyst in the presence of oxygen is an effective means for reducing NOx, although the mechanism of the reduction has not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, an NOx-reduction apparatus was conducted, and model experiments on NOx reduction were carried out in an atmosphere simulating exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine and at the same catalyst temperature as that in a combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cylinder Injection of Low Pressure Natural Gas for Performance Improvement of Small Sized Two-Stroke SI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-1959
Small two stroke SI engines supplied with natural gas in the intake port are advantageous for low maintenance and low cost when used in co-generation systems for residential use. However in the engines with port injection systems, the unburned HC emissions are higher and thermal efficiency is lower than with 4 stroke engines. To overcome these disadvantages, an in-cylinder injection with a special low pressure injection nozzle system was attempted. The results showed that improvements in unburned HC emissions and thermal efficiency are possible due to the remarkable reduction in scavenging loss and the lean combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behaviors Under Accelerating Operation of an IDI Diesel Engine

1980-09-01
800966
In a four-cycle, naturally aspirated, pre-chamber diesel engine, the combustion characteristics such as the rates of fuel injection, the ignition lag, the rates of heat release, the combustion peak pressure, the maximum rates of pressure rise, and the smoke density, were investigated for over 70 consecutive cycles under acceleration, with the aid of an on-line data handling system developed for this experiment. The effects of operating conditions such as the fuel injection timing, the fuel spray angle, the wall temperature of the combustion chamber, and the coolant temperature, on the combustion characteristics were also investigated.
Technical Paper

A Simulation of Diesel Engine Combustion Noise

1976-02-01
760552
In the present work, an attempt was made to predict engine noise from the shape of the burning rate curve. Thus, the influence of the shape of the burning rate curve on engine noise, especially on combustion noise was studied in detail and clarification of the relationship was successfully made. At first, an approximation of burning rate curve using a function was attempted. And in second, the transfer rate from cylinder pressure to combustion noise was obtained. Then, the relation between the deciding parameters of burning rate curve and noise and performance of engine were studied.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reductions of Smoke and NOx from a DI Diesel Engine with EGR and Dimethyl Carbonate

1995-10-01
952518
Extensive experiments were conducted on a low emission DI diesel engine by using Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) as an oxygenate fuel additive. The results indicated that smoke reduced almost linearly with fuel oxygen content. Accompanying noticeable reductions of HC and CO were attained, while a small increase in NOx was encountered. The effective reduction in smoke with DMC was maintained with intake charge CO2, which led to low NOx and smoke emissions by the combined use of oxygenated fuel and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Further experiments were conducted on an optically accessible combustion bomb and a thermal cracking set-up to study the mechanisms of DMC addition on smoke reduction.
Technical Paper

Study on Exhaust Control Valves and Direct Air-Fuel Injection for Improving Scavenging Process in Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines

1996-02-01
960367
A critical factor in improving performance of crankcase-scavenged two-stroke gasoline engines is to reduce the short-circuiting of the fresh charge to the exhaust in the scavenging process. To achieve this, the authors developed a reciprocating exhaust control valve mechanism and direct air-fuel injection system. This paper investigates the effects of exhaust control valve and direct air-fuel injection in the all aspect of engine performance and exhaust emissions over a wide range of loads and engine speeds. The experimental results indicate that the exhaust control valve and direct air-fuel injection system can improve specific fuel consumption, and that HC emissions can be significantly reduced by the reduction in fresh charge losses. The pressure variation also decreased by the improved combustion process. CRANKCASE SCAVENGED two-stroke gasoline engines suffer from fresh charge losses leading to poor fuel economy and it is a reason for large increases of HC in the exhaust.
X