Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Understanding the mechanism of Cylinder Bore and Ring Wear in Methanol Fueled SI Engines

1986-10-01
861591
One of the major problems created by the use of methanol fuels in SI engines is the high cylinder bore and ring wear rates observed during operation at low engine temperatures. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to identify the processes controlling the corrosion/wear mechanism in methanol-fueled, spark-ignition engines. Basically, three different types of experiments were performed during this project. The experiments consisted of: 1. Combustion experiments designed to identify the combustion products of methanol at various locations within a confined methanol flame; 2. Exposure studies designed to define the specific role of each of the combustion products on the corrosion mechanism; 3. Lubricant screening experiments designed to identify the mode of penetration of the oil film, and the location, in the microscale, of the surface attack. Performic acid was identified as the corrosive agent.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay as Determined in a Variable-Compression Ratio Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1987-11-01
872036
A variable-compression ratio, direct-injection diesel engine (VCR) has been designed and assembled at Southwest Research Institute with the intention of examining the current procedures for rating the ignition quality of diesel fuels and the meaning of ignition delay as an indicator of ignition and combustion quality. Using a slightly modified ASTM D 613 procedure, the engine has been used to rate the ignition quality of 43 different test fuels. The ratings obtained in the VCR engine are compared to the corresponding rating obtained using the standard cetane rating procedure. Some of the problems associated with the standard procedure became apparent during these experiments. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the problems and the advantages of a proposed VCR-based rating procedure.
Technical Paper

Engine and Constant Volume Bomb Studies of Diesel ignition and Combustion

1988-10-01
881626
Changing fuel quality, increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, demands for higher efficiency, and the trend towards higher specific output, all contribute to the need for a better understanding of the ignition process in diesel engines. In addition to the impact on the combustion process and the resulting performance and emissions, the ignition process controls the startability of the engine, which, in turn, governs the required compressions ratio and several of the other engine design parameters. The importance of the ignition process is reflected in the fact that the only combustion property that is specified for diesel fuel is the ignition delay time as indicated by the cetane number. The objective of the work described in this paper was to determine the relationship between the ignition process as it occurs in an actual engine, to ignition in a constant volume combustion bomb.
Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0054
This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Composition Effects on Ignition and Emissions

1993-10-01
932735
Four broad boiling range materials, representative of current and future feedstocks for diesel fuel, were processed to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then distilled into six to eight fractions each. The resulting 63 fuels were then characterized physically and chemically, and tested in both a constant volume combustion apparatus and a single cylinder diesel engine. The data obtained from these analyses and tests have been analyzed graphically and statistically. The results of the initial statistical analysis, reported here, indicate that the ignition quality of a fuel is dependent not only on the overall aromatic content, but also on the composition of the material formed during hydroprocessing of the aromatics. The NOx emissions, however, are related mainly to the aromatic content of the fuel, and the structure of the aromatic material.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties and Composition on the Temperature Dependent Autoignition of Diesel Fuel Fractions

1992-10-01
922229
The work described in this paper includes the preparation and combustion testing of fuels that consist of fractions of several different distillate materials that represent different feed stocks and different processing technology. Each of the fuels have been tested in a constant volume combustion apparatus to determine the relationship between ignition delay time, temperature and cetane number. These relationships are discussed in terms of the composition and properties of each fraction, and the processing that each of the feedstocks were exposed to.
Technical Paper

Cetane Numbers of Fatty Esters, Fatty Alcohols and Triglycerides Determined in a Constant Volume Combustion Bomb

1990-02-01
900343
During the 1980's, vegetable oils, microemulsions containing fatty alcohols as surfactants, and fatty esters have been extensively investigaed as alternative fuels to #2 diesel fuel (DF-2) used in farm tractors. Despite the importance of vegetable oils (mainly triglycerides) and fatty derivatives to the alternative fuel program, cetane numbers for pure triglycerides and many fatty derivatives were not reported. In the current study, estimated cetane numbers of these materials have been determined by use of a constant volume combustion bomb. Prior research has shown that this equipment can produce cetane numbers that correlate satisfactorily with engine cetane numbers as determied by ASTM D 613. The influence of chemical structure on ignition delay and cetane number was investigated. Evidence is presented that shows the current cetane number scale is not always suitable for these fatty materials. Suggestions are made as to what might be done to remedy this problem.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine for Improved Fuel Efficiency and Ultra-Low NOx Emissions at Low to Moderate Engine Loads

2001-05-07
2001-01-1897
A new combustion concept has been developed and tested for improving the low to moderate load efficiency and NOx emissions of natural gas engines. This concept involves operation of a dual-fuel natural gas engine on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) in the load regime of idle up to 35 % of the peak torque. A dual-fuel approach is used to control the combustion phasing of the engine during HCCI operation, and conventional spark-ignited natural gas combustion is used for the high-load regime. This concept has resulted in an engine with power output and high-load fuel efficiency that are unchanged from the base engine, but with a 10 - 15 % improvement to the low to moderate load fuel efficiency. In addition, the engine-out NOx emissions during HCCI operation are over 90% lower than on spark-ignited natural gas operation over the equivalent load range.
Technical Paper

Partial Pre-Mixed Combustion with Cooled and Uncooled EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0963
An experimental investigation of the effects of partial premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and EGR temperature was conducted on a Caterpillar C-12 heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE). The addition of EGR and PCCI combustion resulted in significant NOx reductions over the AVL 8-mode test. The lowest weighted BSNOx achieved was 2.55 g/kW-hr (1.90 g/hp-hr) using cooled EGR and 20% port fuel injection (PFI). This represents a 54% reduction compared to the stock engine. BSHC and BSCO emissions increased by a factor of 8 and 10, respectively, compared to the stock engine. BSFC also increased by 7.7%. In general, BSHC, BSCO, BSPM, and BSFC increased linearly with the amount of port-injected fuel.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

1997-05-01
971636
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Cetane Effect on Diesel Ignition Delay Times Measured in a Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus

1995-10-01
952352
The key feature of diesel fuel ignition quality is ignition delay time. In the American Society for Testing and Materials standard test for cetane number measurement, (ASTM D 613) the ignition delay time is held constant while the compression ratio is varied until ignition occurs at the set time. On the other hand, commercial diesel engines have set compression ratios and therefore, the ignition delay time varies with the cetane number of the fuel. The shorter this delay time, the wider the time window over which the combustion processes are spread. This leads to a more controlled heat release rate and pressure rise, resulting in prevention of diesel knock and in lowering of emissions. High cetane fuels exhibit short ignition delay times. The Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA) precisely measures the ignition delay time of fuels. This study investigates the CVCA as a supplementary tool for characterization of diesel fuel ignition quality under a variety of conditions.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Fuel Properties and Composition and Diesel Engine Combustion Performance and Emissions

1994-03-01
941018
Five different diesel fuel feedstocks were processed to two levels of aromatic (0.05 sulfur, and then 10 percent) content. These materials were distilled into 6 to 8 narrow boiling range fractions that were each characterized in terms of the properties and composition. The fractions were also tested at five different speed load conditions in a single cylinder engine where high speed combustion data and emissions measurements were obtained. Linear regression analysis was used to develop relationships between the properties and composition, and the combustion and emissions characteristics as determined in the engine. The results are presented in the form of the regression equations and discussed in terms of the relative importance of the various properties in controlling the combustion and emissions characteristics. The results of these analysis confirm the importance of aromatic content on the cetane number, the smoke and the NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel

1996-05-01
961160
A single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was modified to operate on compression ignition of homogenous mixtures of diesel fuel and air. Previous work has indicated that extremely low emissions and high efficiencies are possible if ignition of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures is accomplished. The limitations of this approach were reported to be misfire and knock. These same observations were verified in the current work. The variables examined in this study included air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, fresh intake air temperature, exhaust gas recirculation rate, and intake mixture temperatures. The results suggested that controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible. Compression ratio, EGR rate, and air fuel ratio are the practical controlling factors in achieving satisfactory operation. It was found that satisfactory power settings are possible with high EGR rates and stoichiometric fuel-air mixtures.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT)

1996-05-01
961182
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.) as an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) for laboratories and refineries. The IQT software/hardware system permits rapid and precise determination of ignition quality for middle distillate fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. Operating and test conditions were examined in the context of providing a high correlation with cetane number (CN), as determined by the ASTM D-613 method. Preliminary investigation indicates that the IQT results are highly repeatable (± 0.30 CN), providing a high sensitivity to CN variation over the 33 to 58 CN range.
Technical Paper

HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine-Effects of Engine Variables

2004-06-08
2004-01-1971
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) experiments were performed in a variable compression ratio single cylinder engine. This is the fourth paper resulting from work performed at Southwest Research Institute in this HCCI engine. The experimental variables, in addition to speed and load, included compression ratio, EGR level, intake manifold pressure and temperature, fuel introduction location, and fuel composition. Mixture preparation and start of reaction control were identified as fundamental problems that required non-traditional mixture preparation and control strategies. The effects of the independent variable on the start of reaction have been documented. For fuels that display significant pre-flame reactions, the start of the pre-flame reactions is controlled primarily by the selection of the fuel and the temperature history of the fuel air mixture.
Technical Paper

The Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engine - An Alternative to Meet Emissions Standards of Tomorrow

2004-03-08
2004-01-0984
A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Ignition Behaviour of the ASTM D-613 Primary Reference Fuels and Full Boiling Range Diesel Fuels in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part III

1999-10-25
1999-01-3591
This paper reports on the third part of a continued study (SAE Papers 961182, 971636) to develop the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Past research has shown that this automated laboratory/refinery apparatus can be used to accurately predict the cetane number of middle distillates and alternative fuels using small sample volumes (< 50 mL). The paper reports on the main objective of a study performed by Advanced Engine Technology Ltd. (AET), in co-operation with its research partners. The primary research objective of this work is to further the understanding of fuel preparation (fuel air mixing) and start of combustion processes in the IQT™. Key to this understanding is the manner in which single molecule compounds and full boiling-range diesel fuels behave during these processes. Insights are provided into the manner in which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-613 primary reference fuels (PRFs) undergo fuel preparation and start of combustion in the IQT™.
X