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Technical Paper

Formation Process of Soot Precursors in a Laminar Flow Reactor

2007-01-23
2007-01-0061
The Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) formation process from benzene was studied using a laminar flow reactor and GC-MS. In addition to PAH, acetylene and ethylene were observed. Without oxygen at temperatures over 1070 K, the amount of PAH and C2 species increased as the benzene concentration decreased. Addition of oxygen caused a linear decrease in the benzene concentration, and almost all of the benzene was consumed under stoichiometric conditions at all temperatures. At 1053 K, the concentrations of PAH and C2 species were not affected by the addition of oxygen. On the other hand, when the temperature was greater than 1070 K, the amount of PAH formed increased as the equivalence ratio increased, until the equivalence ratio was about 4. Above this equivalence ratio, the amounts decreased. Amounts of phenanthrene and biphenyl were large compared to those of other PAHs, which indicated that the dominant PAH formation path is the formation of phenanthrene via biphenyl.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms in Reducing Smoke and NOx from BDF Combustion by Ethanol Blending and EGR

2007-04-16
2007-01-0622
Palm oil has the important advantage of productivity compared to other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil and soybean oil. However, the cold flow performance of palm oil methyl ester (PME) is poorer than other vegetable oil based biodiesel fuels. Previous research by the authors has shown that ethanol blending into PME improves the cold flow performance and considerably reduces smoke emission. The reduced smoke may be expected to allow an expansion in the EGR limit and lead to reduced NOx. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of EGR on smoke and NOx emissions from the diesel combustion with PME/ethanol blended fuel. The mechanisms in the smoke reduction are also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1866
The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Direct Injection Spark Ignition Combustion in Hydrogen Lean Mixture

2000-06-12
2000-05-0089
Characteristics of methane direct injection spark ignition stratified combustion in lean hydrogen mixture were analyzed both in a single cylinder engine and in a constant volume combustion vessel. Combustion pressure and instantaneous combustion chamber wall temperature during combustion process were measured and used in analysis of combustion and cooling loss. Results in this research show the premixed hydrogen increases cooling loss to combustion chamber wall while achieving combustion promotion, and the combustion system is effective especially in lean mixture conditions. Analysis of flame propagation was also done with schlieren photography in the constant volume combustion vessel.
Technical Paper

A New Type Partial Flow Dilution Tunnel with Geometrical Partitioning for Diesel Particulate Measurement

2001-09-24
2001-01-3579
The authors have developed a new partial flow dilution tunnel (hereafter referred to as PPFT), whose principal device is a flux splitting gas divider, as a new means of measuring particulate emissions which can be applied to transient cycle testing of diesel engines. The advantage of this system is that it can achieve perfect constant velocity splitting by means of its structure, and theoretically can also maintain high splitting performance despite fluctuations in the exhaust flow rate, including those due to engine exhaust pulsation. We compared this system with a full tunnel by analyzing the basic performance of the system and measuring particulate matter (PM) using an actual vehicle engine.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under the NOx Level of Japanese 2009 Emission Regulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-3996
In order to discuss future technical issues for urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, it is necessary to assess various technical possibilities that would be applied to urea SCR systems which is capable of complying with future emission level requirements, for example Japanese 2009 emission regulation. In this paper, three measures (enhanced insulation on a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), aggressive urea solution injection and idling stop) are installed on a urea SCR system of a commercial engine system in order to achieve further NOx (nitrogen oxide) reductions. With combination of these three measures, NOx is drastically reduced to the levels lower than 0.7 g/kWh, which is a NOx limit value of the Japanese 2009 emission regulation. NH3 (ammonia) and HCN (hydro cyanide) are also measured as unregulated harmful components.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degree of Constant Volume and Cooling Loss in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3561
This study analyzes the factors influencing the thermal efficiency of a homogeneous charge spark-injection (SI) engine fuelled with hydrogen, focusing on the degree of constant volume and cooling loss. The cooling loss from the burning gas to the cylinder walls is quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the cylinder pressure diagram and exhaust gas composition. The degree of constant volume burning and constant volume cooling are also obtained by fitting the Wiebe function to the rate of heat release calculated using the cylinder pressure diagram. A comparison of combustion and cooling characteristics of hydrogen and methane combustion reveals that cooling loss in hydrogen combustion is higher than that of methane combustion due to the short quenching distance and rapid burning velocity during hydrogen combustion. It is also suggested that the high cooling loss observed during hydrogen combustion reduces thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of H2-CO-CO2 Mixture in an IC Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0252
Reformed fuel from hydrocarbons or alcohol mainly consists of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The composition of the reformed fuel can be varied to some extent with a combination of a thermal decomposition reaction and a water gas shift reaction. Methanol is known to decompose at a relatively low temperature. An application of the methanol reforming system to an internal combustion engine enables an exhaust heat recovery to increase the heating value of the reformed fuel. This research analyzed characteristics of combustion, exhaust emissions and cooling loss in an internal combustion engine fueled with several composition of model gases for methanol reformed fuels which consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Experiments were made with both a bottom view type optical access single cylinder research engine and a constant volume combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Combustion in an HCCI Engine with the Ignition-Control by Hydrogen

2006-10-16
2006-01-3248
A homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine system that was fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol-reformed gas (MRG) has been proposed in the previous research. Adjusting the proportion of DME and MRG can effectively control the ignition timing of the engine. In the system, both fuels are to be produced from methanol in onboard reformers utilizing the engine exhaust gas heat. While hydrogen contained in MRG has the main role of the ignition control, hydrogen increases with carbon dioxide in the methanol reforming. This paper investigates the influence of carbon dioxide on HCCI combustion engine with the ignition control by hydrogen. Both thermal and chemical effects of carbon dioxide are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3397
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Various Dilution Gases

2007-04-16
2007-01-0126
The effects of intake dilution with various dilution gases including nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide on low temperature diesel combustion were investigated in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine to understand the mechanism of the simultaneous reductions in smoke and NOx with ultra-high EGR. NOx almost completely disappears with the intake oxygen concentration diluted below 16% regardless of the kind of dilution gas. Smoke emissions decrease with increased heat capacity of the charged gas due to promotion of mixture homogeneity with longer ignition delays. Intake dilution with the 36% CO2 + 64% Ar mixture which has a similar specific heat capacity as N2 shows lower smoke emissions than with N2. Chemical kinetics analysis shows that carbon dioxide may help to reduce NOx and soot by lowering the reaction temperature as well as by changing the concentrations of some radicals or/and species related to soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Properties

2006-10-16
2006-01-3387
The dependence of ultra-high EGR low temperature diesel combustion on fuel properties including cetane number and distillation temperature was investigated with a single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, 1.0 L, common rail DI diesel engine. Decreasing cetane number in fuels significantly reduces smoke emission due to an extension in ignition delay and the subsequent improvement in mixture formation. Smokeless combustion, ultra-low NOx, and efficient operating range with regard to EGR and IMEP are significantly extended by decreasing fuel cetane number. Changes in fuel distillation temperature do not result in significant differences in smoke emission and thermal efficiency for ultra-high EGR operation, and smokeless operation is established even with higher distillation temperature fuels as long as fuel cetane number is sufficiently low.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diesel Combustion Using of Wide Range, High Boosted and Cooled EGR System by Single Cylinder Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0077
For reducing exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, the authors made an experimental study of diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions have been measured using a wide range and high EGR rate under the conditions of high boost intake pressure. The engine test cell has been equipped the external supercharger that is able to raise the boost pressure to 500 kPa, and also equipped the EGR system to increase the EGR rate until 50% under the 500 kPa boost condition. In various test conditions of load and engine speeds the authors have obtained the results, that is, NOx has been reduced drastically without increasing Particulate Matter (PM).
Technical Paper

Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion with Variable Valve Timing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0203
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

The Cold Flow Performance and the Combustion Characteristics with Ethanol Blended Biodiesel Fuel

2005-10-24
2005-01-3707
The purpose of this study is to improve low-temperature flow-properties of biodiesel fuels (BDF) by blending with ethanol and to analyze the combustion characteristics in a diesel engine fueled with BDF/ethanol blended fuel. Because ethanol has a lower solidifying temperature, higher oxygen content, lower cetane number, and higher volatility than BDF, ethanol blending would have a large effect on cold flow performance, mixture formation, ignition, combustion, and exhaust emissions. The engine experiments in the study were performed with a diesel engine and blends of BDF and ethanol at different blending ratios. The cold flow performance of the blended fuels was evaluated by determining the fuel cloud point. The experimental results show that the ethanol blending lowers the cloud point of the blended fuel and significantly reduces smoke emissions from the engine without deteriorating other emissions or thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Trapping Performance of Fine Particles from a Diesel Engine by Various DPFs with Different Surface Structures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0598
The regulation of particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines is coming to be very stringent at present. The usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now under consideration in many heavy-duty diesel vehicle manufacturers to reduce PM emission from a diesel engine. The possibility that very fine particles may pass through DPF is suggested. The understanding of fine particles emission behaviors and the countermeasure of reducing particle emissions from DPF will come to be important in near future. The behavior of particle size distribution after DPF has not been studied enough yet. In this study, fine particles generated by a diesel engine are introduced to honeycomb type and SiC (Silicon Carbite) fiber type DPFs and the collection performances of fine particles by various DPFs with different surface structures have been examined.
Technical Paper

Influence of Dilution Process on Engine Exhaust Nano-Particles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0963
Recently, particulate matter (PM) emission from internal combustion engines, especially particles having the diameter of less than 100 nm (Nano-particles) are being considered for their potential hazards posed to human health and the environment. Nano-particles are unstable and easily influenced by the conditions of engine operation and measurement techniques. In this study, the influences of cooling and dilution processes on nano- particles are presented to understand the generation and dilution mechanisms, and to further development of an accurate measurement method. It is found that the thermo-dilurter is necessary for measuring the nano-particles with higher accuracy. Accurate measurement of nano-particles requires immediate dilution of the exhaust gases by hot air.
Technical Paper

Thermal Conditioning of Exhaust Gas: Potential for Stabilizing Diesel Nano-Particles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0187
Conditioning of diluted exhaust gas by Thermo-Conditioner prior to measurement has been proposed by the GRPE/PMP Research Council of the United Nation in order to achieve stability in nano-particle measurement. In this study the effect of thermo-conditioner on the thermo-physical behavior of nano-particle under different conditions have been clarified. Stability in measurement was also attempted depending on the characteristics of nano-particles. Quality of the raw exhaust gas, the dilution ratio and temperature, and the thermal conditioning temperature were considered as the main parameters. Exhaust gas from a medium duty DI diesel engine was used for analysis. Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used for measuring the concentration of nano-particles. It was concluded that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles within the size range of 15∼30 nm are significantly influenced by the thermal conditioning temperature.
Technical Paper

Influence of Reformed Gas Composition on HCCI Combustion of Onboard Methanol-Reformed Gases

2004-06-08
2004-01-1908
Adjusting the proportion of two fuels with different ignition properties is an effective technique for controlling ignition timing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. One of the authors has proposed an HCCI combustion engine system fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) with a high cetane number and methanol reformed gas (MRG) with a high anti-knock property in the previous research. Both DME and MRG are to be produced from methanol by onboard reformers utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine in the system. The research has shown that adjusting the proportion of DME and MRG effectively controlled the ignition timing and load in HCCI combustion of the two fuels. High overall thermal efficiency has been shown over a wide operable range. While the MRG used in the research was the thermally decomposed methanol, which consists of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, methanol can be reformed into various compositions of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of Particle Size Distribution From Diesel Engines Equipped With Continuous Regenerative DPF Under a Transient Driving Condition

2004-06-08
2004-01-1984
A new PM measurement method, such as particle measurement equipments, samplings and so on, is being studied at present for a type approval test in the future. Particles emitted from diesel engines, especially the particles that are called “Nuclei Mode Particles” are very unstable and easily influenced by the engine operating conditions and the measurement conditions. Most of nuclei mode particles are said to consist of volatile organic particles with mainly high carbon numbers. It is said that a continuous regenerative type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) consisting of oxidation catalyst and ceramic filter will prevail in the near future. These particles may be able to be reduced by an oxidation catalyst in this DPF.
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