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Technical Paper

Influence of the Alcohol Type and Concentration in Alcohol-Blended Fuels on the Combustion and Emission of Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0038
The combustion processes optimization is one of the most important factors to enhancing thermal efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions of combustion engines [1; 2]. Future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines require that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, such as carbon dioxide, to be reduced. One possible way to reduce exhaust gas emissions from two-stroke small off-road engines (SORE) is to use biogenic fuels. Because of their nearly closed carbon dioxide circuit, the emissions of carbon dioxide decrease compared to the use of fossil fuels. Also biogenic fuels have a significant influence on the combustion process and thus the emissions of different exhaust gas components may be reduced. Besides greenhouse gases, several other exhaust gas components need to be reduced because of their toxicity to the human health. For example, aromatic hydrocarbons cause dangerous health problems, and can be reduced by using alkylate fuel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Heat Flux Analysis of an Automotive Diesel Engine in Steady-State Operation and During Warm-Up

2011-09-11
2011-24-0067
Advanced thermal management systems in passenger cars present a possibility to increase efficiency of current and future vehicles. However, a vehicle integrated thermal management of the combustion engine is essential to optimize the overall thermal system. This paper shows results of an experimental heat flux analysis of a state-of-the-art automotive diesel engine with common rail injection, map-controlled thermostat and split cooling system. Measurements on a climatic chamber engine test bench were performed to investigate heat fluxes and energy balance in steady-state operation and during engine warm-up from different engine start temperatures. The analysis includes the influence of the operating point and operating parameters like EGR rate, injection strategy and coolant temperature on the engine energy balance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Two-Stroke SI Combustion with Simultaneous Cycle-Based Fuel Consumption Measurements

2010-09-28
2010-32-0061
Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Emission Behaviour and Fuel Consumption of a Small Two-Stroke SI Chainsaw under Test-Bed- and Real In-Use Conditions

2012-10-23
2012-32-0070
The emission behaviour of an internal combustion engine under test-bed conditions shows differences to the emission behaviour under real in-use conditions. Because of this fact, the developers of combustion engines and the legislator are focussing on the measurement and optimization of real in-use emissions. To this day, the research, the adjustment of the carburettor and the legislation of small handheld engines is performed under test bench conditions, especially conditioned fuel pressure and temperature, as well as air temperature. Also the engines are laid out for two operation points: rated speed with full open throttle and idle speed. This test-procedure is used for all kinds of handheld off-road applications and does not consider the load profile of the different power tools. Especially applications with transient load profiles, for example chainsaws, work in more than two operating points in real use.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Soot Emission Behavior of A Common-Rail Diesel Engine during Steady and Non-Steady Operating Conditions by Means of Several Measuring Techniques

2005-05-11
2005-01-2154
In this work the influence of various engine load changes with different engine speeds on the soot particle concentrations and properties was investigated because these operating modes are well known for short but high soot emissions. To derive specific information on emission behavior of particle matters tests were carried out with the Two-Color-Method and the so called RAYLIX technique in a four-cylinder CR-Diesel engine. The Two-Color-Method (2CM) gives crank angle resolved information about soot formation and oxidation processes inside the combustion chamber of a single cylinder. The RAYLIX technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII) and extinction measurements which enable simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean primary particle radii and number densities in the exhaust gas manifold of the same cylinder investigated by the Two-Color-Method.
Technical Paper

The BPI Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in Spark Ignited Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0035
Spark ignited engines with direct injection (DISI) in fuel stratified mode promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to reduced pumping losses at part load. However, the need for expensive lean NOx catalysts may reduce this advantage. Therefore, a Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. It is characterised by a combination of a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. An important feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy. A pre injection in the inlet stroke produces a homogeneous lean mixture with an air fuel ratio of λ = 1.5 to λ = 1.7. A second injection with a small quantity of fuel is directed towards the piston bowl during the compression stroke. The enriched air fuel mixture of the piston bowl is transported by the pressure difference between main combustion chamber and prechamber into the prechamber.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Optical Fiber Technique for Flame Propagation Diagnostics in IC Engines

1988-10-01
881637
A multi-optical fiber measurement technique is presented which can determine spatial flame propagation with a high temporal resolution. With this measurement technique it is possible to investigate the combustion process in both Diesel and SI engines. The measurement technique can also be applied for the detection of flame propagation in research engines and in actual production engines for performing analysis of special problems such as knocking combustion, combustion chamber design studies which concern flame propagation, the influence of engine parameters on flame propagation, ignition and inflammability behavior. The new measurement technique is discussed in detail and the application of optical measuring points in the combustion chamber walls is demonstrated. A special non-contacting optical transmission system has been developed for the observation of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Diesel Particulate Filter with an Electrical Regeneration Starting Module

2005-10-24
2005-01-3703
Different particulate filter systems with an electrical heating for starting the filter regeneration were designed and tested to evaluate the parameters important for a successful filter and heating device layout. These results led to a new filter system with an improved electrical heating module. Particular emphasis was put on a modular design which allows a separate optimization of the different system parts with regard to function, durability and costs. In this paper the different development steps are presented. Experimental results show the performance and limitations for electrically heated particulate traps. The analysis of the experiments was done on the one hand by using data such as temperatures, pressures and exhaust gas composition during the regeneration. On the other hand the assessment of the regeneration rate was done by weighing the filter and optically with non-destructive and partly destructive methods.
Technical Paper

A New Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in SI Engines

2005-10-24
2005-01-3688
Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Injection of Pure Rape Seed Oil in modern Diesel Engines with Direct-Injection

2007-07-23
2007-01-2031
Natural vegetable oil like rape seed oil is a potential substitute for regular fuel for diesel engines. Compared to other biogen fuels like rape seed methyl ester (RME), pure rape seed oil is neutral towards groundwater and it needs considerably less energy and additives for production. Different physical properties of rape seed oil compared to Diesel fuel are the reason why conventional Diesel engines can hardly be used satisfactorily with rape seed oil without being modified. Poor exhaust-emission behavior is caused by the incomplete combustion. Due to poor spray atomization of vegetable oil, an increased fuel entrainment in the lubricating oil, carbonization in the combustion chamber and deposits at injectors and valves are further drawbacks of injection systems designed for conventional diesel fuel. The preheating of this fuel can solve some problems.
Technical Paper

Potential of Reducing the NOX Emissions in a Spray Guided DI Gasoline Engine by Stratified Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1261
In this paper, results of experimental and numerical investigations of stratified exhaust gas recirculation in a single-cylinder gasoline engine are presented. The engine was operated in spray guided direct injection mode. The radial exhaust gas stratification was achieved by a spatial and temporal separated intake of exhaust gas and fresh air. The spatial separation of both fluids was realized by specially shaped baffles in the inlet ports, which prevent an early mixing up to the inlet valves. The temporally separation was performed by impulse charge valves, with one for the fresh air and one for the exhaust gas. From various possible strategies for time-dependent intake of fresh air and exhaust gas, four different strategies for the exhaust gas stratification were examined.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Simulation of a Two- Stroke Engine

2006-11-13
2006-32-0062
The paper presents an application of a quasi-dimensional (QD) model for the combustion simulation in a two-stroke engine. In contrast to 0D-models the QD-models provide an opportunity to describe the development of the combustion process in dependence on the actual thermodynamic state in the combustion chamber. The QD-models enable to couple the flame propagation with the combustion chamber geometry and with the flow field. An extensive sensitivity analysis is performed for the QD-model by varying the parameters of the QD-model itself and of the operating points. The constructed QD-model is examined under various conditions (engine speed, the delivery ratio and the air to fuel ratio) and shows a good agreement with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Ion-Current Measurement in Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2008-09-09
2008-32-0037
The cyclic changes of the cylinder pressure are mainly influenced by the primary inflammation phase, which in turn depends on the local air/fuel ratio and the residual-gas fraction at the spark plug. The ion-current measurement technique is based on the conductivity of the mixture during the internal combustion. It is therefore possible to use the signal for combustion diagnostics when using the spark plug as a sensor. This article demonstrates the potential of ion sensing at the spark plug and in the combustion chamber to detect sources of interference which prevent an optimal combustion process. Comparing the ion signals of consecutive combustion cycles delivers explanations of phenomena that could not yet be sufficiently characterized by cylinder-pressure indication. The results allow new fundamental approaches to the optimization of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Influence of Atomization Quality on Mixture Formation, Combustion and Emissions in a MPI-Engine Under Cold-Start Conditions, Part I

2002-10-21
2002-01-2807
The study presented in this two part paper was focused on the influence of primary mixture formation on engine running behavior covering the areas combustion and raw emissions. Two different concepts for primary fuel atomization were utilized and compared, the standard production injector and a flash boiling injector. The spray generated by the flash boiling injector was characterized by a significant reduction in droplet size and a partial direct vaporization during the injection process by preheating the fuel inside the injector. In this study special emphasis was put on the transient process of engine start between typical cooling water temperatures of -7°C and 85°C. Various measurements and visualization techniques were applied to investigate the mixture preparation, the deposition of liquid fuel on the walls, the start of combustion, and in-cylinder and engine-out UHC emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Atomization Quality on Mixture Formation, Combustion and Emissions in a MPI-Engine Under Cold-Start Conditions, Part II

2002-10-21
2002-01-2806
The intention of the study presented in this two part paper is to investigate the influence oalf primary mixture formation on engine running behavior, covering the areas of combustion and raw emissions. Two different concepts for primary fuel atomization were utilized and compared, the standard production injector and a flash boiling injector. The flash boiling injector is characterized by a significant reduction in droplet size and a partial direct vaporization during the injection process by preheating the fuel inside the injector. In this study special emphasis was laid on the transient process of engine start between typical cooling water temperatures of -7°C and 85°C. Various measurements and visualization techniques had been applied to investigate mixture preparation, deposition of liquid fuel on the walls, start of combustion, and in-cylinder as well as engine-out UHC emissions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Various Compression Ratios, Intake Air Temperatures and Fuels with Port and Direct Fuel Injection

2003-06-23
2003-01-2293
A promising approach for reducing both NOx- and particulate matter emissions with low fuel consumption is the so called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Single-cylinder engine tests were carried out to assess the influence of several parameters on the HCCI combustion. The experiments were performed both with port fuel injection (PFI) and with direct injection (DI) under various compression ratios, intake air temperatures and EGR-rates. Special emphasis was put on the fuel composition by using different gasoline and diesel fuels as well as n-heptane. Besides engine out emissions (CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC, soot) and in-cylinder pressure indication for burning process analysis, the combustion itself was visualised using an optical probe.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control with the Optical Fibre Fitted Production Spark Plug

1998-02-01
980139
Optical measurement technique became more and more common for the last few years. Especially optical fibre technique is often used to detect flame propagation. With optical sensors the ignition process can be investigated with high temporal and spatial resolution. An in-cylinder optical sensor has been developed and tested to analyze the ignition of mixture and luminous emission of burning gas. The sensor consists of eight optical probes fitted in a conventional spark plug. The results show good correlation between measured luminosity and combustion parameters such as load, engine speed, ignition timing and air-fuel mixture ratio. A correlation between development of light intensity and pressure was found. For evaluation of light signals different analysis methods are presented. Furthermore it is shown that the luminosity of the flame can be used to control the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurements in Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0030
This paper demonstrates the potential of optical sensors in the combustion chamber of a small two-stroke SI engine to detect conditions that hinder an optimal combustion process using emission bands and/or emission lines. The primary focus is on the spectroscopic examination of the combustion radiation emissions cycle-by-cycle. For this purpose, spark-ignition type combustion events, as well as the influence of both the air-fuel-ratio and the fuel type, are investigated on a crank angle resolved basis. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiation emissions of the OH, CH and C2 radicals is made. As a next step, the calculation of a temperature profile inside the combustion chamber is attempted by means of the line-emission-method regarding the thermally excited alkaline metals sodium and potassium. These data enable recognition of diffusion combustion and the detection of inadequate mixture quality.
Technical Paper

Influence of High Frequency Ignition on the Combustion and Emission Behaviour of Small Two-Stroke Spark Ignition Engines

2013-10-15
2013-32-9144
The two-stroke SI engine is the predominant driving unit in applications that require a high power-to-weight ratio, such as handheld power tools. Regarding the latest regulations in emission limits the main development area is clearly a further reduction of the exhaust emissions. The emissions are directly linked to the combustion processes and the scavenging losses. The optimization of the combustion processes, which represents one of the most challenging fields of research, is still one of the most important keys to enhance the thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. Regarding future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines it is inevitable that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, like carbon dioxide, need to be reduced. As most small SI engines are carburetted and operate open loop, the mixture formation and the amount of residual gas differs from cycle to cycle [1].
Technical Paper

67 Analysis of Mixture Conditions in a Small Two Stroke Engine Using a Gas Sampling Valve

2002-10-29
2002-32-1836
The quality of mixture formation and the combustion process is of significant importance for reducing the hydrocarbon emissions of small two stroke engines. The scope of this work was to investigate the mixture conditions after the exhaust closes and after the end of combustion depending on various engine operating points. For this experimental investigation a Gas Sampling Valve (GSV) was combined with a flame ionisation detector (FID) and a CO2-analyser. Using this technique, it was possible to measure the hydrocarbon concentration after end of combustion. Furthermore the local residual gas concentration after exhaust closes was determined. To allow for a comparison of the experimental results with calculations with CFD codes, in cylinder pressure measurement and exhaust gas measurements are done additionally.
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