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Technical Paper

A Study on Process of Direct Injection Stratified Charge Combustion in a Constant-Volume Vessel

1989-11-01
891223
A numerical simulation model has been developed to predict the direct injection stratified charge combustion in a constant- volume vessel. Important factors such as local fuel concentration, their fluctuation and turbulent flow characteristics were measured throughout the vessel as function of time. These data were utilized to estimate the buring rate composed of the turbulent fuel-air mixing rate and chemical reaction rate. The model can predict the combustion pressures and heat release rates measured for different ignition timings and spark location.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Characteristics of Natural Gas Combustion at a High Compression Ratio by Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1651
Natural gas is an attractive alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be one of the most promising measures for increasing thermal efficiency and reducing emissions, but it is difficult to control and stabilize its ignition and combustion processes. This paper describes an experimental study of natural gas combustion utilizing two types of ignition assistance. Spark assistance, which is used for conventional spark ignition (SI) engines, and pilot diesel injection, hereinafter called diesel pilot, which generates multiple ignition points by using a small injection of diesel that accounts for 2% of the total heat release for the cycle. The performance of these two approaches was compared with respect to various combustion characteristics when burning homogeneous natural gas mixtures at a high compression ratio.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1745
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Journal Article

Experiments and Simulations of a Lean-Boost Spark Ignition Engine for Thermal Efficiency Improvement

2015-11-17
2015-32-0711
Primary work is to investigate premixed laminar flame propagation in a constant volume chamber of iso-octane/air combustion. Experimental and numerical results are investigated by comparing flame front displacements under lean to rich conditions. As the laminar flame depends on equivalence ratio, temperature, and pressure conditions, it is a main property for chemical reaction mechanism validation. Firstly, one-dimensional laminar flame burning velocities are predicted in order to validate a reduced chemical reaction mechanism. A set of laminar burning velocities with pressure, temperature, and mixture equivalence ratio dependences are combined into a 3D-CFD calculation to compare the predicted flame front displacements with that of experiments. It is found that the reaction mechanism is well validated under the coupled 1D-3D combustion calculations. Next, lean experiments are operated in a SI engine by boosting intake pressure to maintain high efficiency without output power penalty.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Accounting for the Finite-Rate Elementary Chemical Reactions for Computing Diesel Combustion Process

2005-09-11
2005-24-051
To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion with Variable Valve Timing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0203
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

The Control of Diesel Emissions by Supercharging and Varying Fuel-injection Parameters

1992-02-01
920117
A study has been made of an automotive direct injection diesel engine designed to reduce exhaust emissions, particularly NOx and particulates, without performance deterioration. Special emphasis has been placed on air-fuel mixing conditions controlled by the fuel injection rate, the intake swirl ratio, and the intake boost pressure. By means of increasing the injection rate, ignition delay can be shortened enough to improve particulate emissions at retarded injection timings. Enhancing the intake swirl velocity contributes to the reduction of soot emission in spite of the deterioration of NOx emission. Supercharging can favorably enhance diffusion combustion resulting in improved fuel economy for retarded injection timings and reduced emissions. As a result, a good compromise can be achieved between fuel economy and exhaust emissions by increasing the injection rate along with retarding the injection timing. Supercharging was found to be more favorable than swirl enhancement.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of EGR and Supercharging on Diesel Combustion and Emissions

1993-03-01
930601
An experimental study has been made of a single cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine having a re-entrant combustion chamber designed to enhance combustion so as to reduce exhaust emissions. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling the inert gas concentration in the localized fuel-air mixture to lower combustion gas temperatures, thereby reduce exhaust NOx emission. For this specific purpose, an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, which has been widely used in gasoline engines, was applied to the DI diesel engine to control the intake inert gas concentration. In addition, supercharging and increasing fuel injection pressure prevent the deterioration of smoke and unburned hydrocarbons and improve fuel economy, as well.
Technical Paper

Controlling Combustion Characteristics Using a Slit Nozzle in a Direct-Injection Methanol Engine

1994-10-01
941909
A new type of fuel injection nozzle, called a “slit nozzle,” has been developed to improve poor ignitability and to stabilize combustion under low load conditions in direct-injection methanol diesel engines manufactured for medium-duty trucks. This nozzle has a single oblong vent like a slit. Engine test results indicate that the slit nozzle can improve combustion and thermal efficiency, especially at low loads and no load. This can be explained by the fact that the slit nozzle forms a more highly concentrated methanol spray around the glow-plug than do multi-hole nozzles. As a result, this nozzle improves flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Predicting Exhaust Emissions in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using a Combustion Model Combined with Full Kinetics

1996-10-01
961935
A numerical model has been developed to predict the formation of NOx and formaldehyde in the combustion and post-combustion zones of a methanol DI engine. For this purpose, a methanol-air mixture model combined with a full kinetics model has been introduced, taking into account 39 species with their 157 related elementary reactions. Through these kinetic simulations, a concept is proposed for optimizing methanol combustion and reducing exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Study of Knock Control in Small Gasoline Engines by Multi-Dimensional Simulation

2006-11-13
2006-32-0034
To suppress knock in small gasoline engines, the coolant flow of a single-cylinder engine was improved by using two methods: a multi-dimensional knock prediction method combining a Flamelet model with a simple chemical kinetics model, and a method for predicting combustion chamber wall temperature based on a thermal fluid calculation that coupled the engine coolant and the engine structure (engine head, cylinder block, and head gasket). Through these calculations as well as the measurement of wall temperatures and the analysis of combustion by experiments, the effects of wall temperature distribution and consequent unburnt gas temperature distribution on knock onset timing and location were examined. Furthermore, a study was made to develop a method for cooling the head side, which was more effective to suppress knock: the head gasket shape was modified to change the coolant flow and thereby improve the distribution of wall temperatures on the head side.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Journal Article

Miller-PCCI Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine with VVT

2008-04-14
2008-01-0644
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism has been applied in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The effective compression ratio (εeff) was lowered by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), while keeping the expansion ratio constant. Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, adopting the Miller-cycle, was experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. Significant improvements of NOx and soot emissions were achieved for a wide range of engine speeds and loads, frequently used in a transient mode test. The operating range of the Miller-PCCI combustion has been expanded up to an IMEP of 1.30 MPa.
Journal Article

A Study of Gasoline Lift-off Combustion in a Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0140
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the concept of gasoline lift-off spray combustion in which the burning velocity is controlled by the rate of mixture supply to the flame zone. With this concept, gasoline fuel is injected under high pressure to promote atomization, evaporation and mixing with the air, thereby quickly forming a homogenous mixture extending to the flame downstream of the spray. As a result, the injected fuel is burned sequentially. In this study, a constant-volume combustion vessel was used to visualize and analyze spray combustion. The experimental results made clear the effects of the initial conditions (e.g., injection pressure and nozzle hole diameter) and the ambient conditions (e.g., temperature and pressure) on the flame lift-off length and soot formation. In addition, the conditions facilitating this combustion concept were examined by conducting combustion simulations with the KIVA-3V code, taking into account the detailed chemical reaction mechanisms.
Journal Article

Effect of Ethanol on Knock in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines

2008-09-09
2008-32-0020
This study examines the effects of ethanol content on engine performances and the knock characteristics in spark ignition gasoline engine under various compression ratio conditions by cylinder pressure analysis, visualization and numerical simulation. The results confirm that increasing the ethanol content provides for greater engine torque and thermal efficiency as a result of the improvement of knock tolerance. It was also confirmed that increasing the compression ratio together with increasing ethanol content is effective to overcome the shortcomings of poor fuel economy caused by the low calorific value of ethanol. Further, the results of one dimensional flame propagation simulation show that ethanol content increase laminar burning velocity. Moreover, the results of visualization by using a bore scope demonstrate that ethanol affects the increase of initial flame propagation speed and thus helps suppress knock.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engine Using a Multi-Dimensional Model Combined With Detailed Kinetics

2002-05-06
2002-01-1750
A numerical study was carried out to investigate combustion characteristics of a dual-fuel gas diesel engine, using a multi-dimensional model combined with detailed chemical kinetics, including 43 chemical species and 173 elementary reactions. In calculations, the effects of initial temperature, EGR ratios on ignition, and combustion were examined. The results indicated EGR combined with intake preheating can favorably reduced NOx and THC emissions simultaneously. This can be explained by the fact that combustion mechanism is changed from flame propagation to HCCl like combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulating Exhaust Emissions Characteristics and Their Improvements in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using Combustion Models Combined with Detailed Kinetics

1997-05-01
971598
An experimental and numerical study has been conducted on the emission and reduction of HCHO (formaldehyde) and other pollutants formed in the cylinder of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled by methanol. Engine tests were performed under a variety of intake conditions including throttling, heating, and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) for the purpose of improving these emissions by changing gas compositions and combustion temperatures in the cylinder. Moreover, a detailed kinetics model was developed and applied to methanol combustion to investigate HCHO formation and the reduction mechanism influenced by associated elementary reactions and in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Particulate Matter Formed in Fuel Rich Mixture

2003-10-27
2003-01-3175
Experimental and numerical studies on PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and PM (Particulate Matters) formed in the fuel rich mixture have been conducted. In the experiment, neat n-heptane and n-heptane with benzene 25 % by weight were chosen as test fuels. In-cylinder gases produced by the fuel-rich HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion were directly sampled and analyzed by the use of GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectro- metry), and PM emission was also measured by PM sampling system to reveal characteristics of PM formation. Numerical study has been also carried out using a zero dimensional combustion model combined with detailed chemistry. Furthermore, simple surface growth of soot particles was integrated into a detailed chemical kinetic model, and validated with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Improvement of NOx Reduction Efficiency for a Urea SCR System

2015-09-01
2015-01-2014
Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) exhaust after-treatment systems are one of the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines. Both Cu-zeolite (Cu-SCR) and Fe-zeolite (Fe-SCR) urea SCR systems have been studied extensively but not many detailed studies have been conducted on the combination of both systems. Thus, we carried out studies on such Combined-SCR systems and their capability to reduce NOx under various engine operating conditions. We also conducted transient engine tests using different catalyst systems to compare their performance. The results show that combined-SCR systems can reduce NOx more effectively than Fe-SCR or Cu-SCR alone. The best NOx reduction performance was achieved at a Cu ratio of 0.667 (i.e. Fe: Cu =1: 2). Combined-SCR thus apparently benefits from the characteristics of both Cu-SCR and Fe-SCR, allowing it to reduce NOx over a wide range of operating conditions.
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