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Journal Article

Effect of Biodiesel on NOx Reduction Performance of Urea-SCR System

The use of biomass fuels for vehicles has been a focus of attention all over the world in terms of prevention of global warming, effective utilization of resources and local revitalization. For the purpose of beneficial use of unused biomass resources, the movement of the use of bioethanol and biodiesel made from them has spread in Japan. In Japan, biodiesel is mainly made from waste cooking oil collected by local communities or governments, and in terms of local production for local consumption, it is used as neat fuel (100% biofuel) or mixed with diesel fuel in high concentration for the vehicles. On the other hand, extremely low emission level must be kept for not only gasoline vehicles but also diesel vehicles in the post new long-term regulation implemented from 2009 in Japan.
Technical Paper

Degradation of DeNOx Performance of a Urea-SCR System in In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles Complying with the New Long-Term Regulation in Japan and Estimation of its Mechanism

Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
Technical Paper

The Cold Flow Performance and the Combustion Characteristics with Ethanol Blended Biodiesel Fuel

The purpose of this study is to improve low-temperature flow-properties of biodiesel fuels (BDF) by blending with ethanol and to analyze the combustion characteristics in a diesel engine fueled with BDF/ethanol blended fuel. Because ethanol has a lower solidifying temperature, higher oxygen content, lower cetane number, and higher volatility than BDF, ethanol blending would have a large effect on cold flow performance, mixture formation, ignition, combustion, and exhaust emissions. The engine experiments in the study were performed with a diesel engine and blends of BDF and ethanol at different blending ratios. The cold flow performance of the blended fuels was evaluated by determining the fuel cloud point. The experimental results show that the ethanol blending lowers the cloud point of the blended fuel and significantly reduces smoke emissions from the engine without deteriorating other emissions or thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Trapping Performance of Fine Particles from a Diesel Engine by Various DPFs with Different Surface Structures

The regulation of particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines is coming to be very stringent at present. The usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now under consideration in many heavy-duty diesel vehicle manufacturers to reduce PM emission from a diesel engine. The possibility that very fine particles may pass through DPF is suggested. The understanding of fine particles emission behaviors and the countermeasure of reducing particle emissions from DPF will come to be important in near future. The behavior of particle size distribution after DPF has not been studied enough yet. In this study, fine particles generated by a diesel engine are introduced to honeycomb type and SiC (Silicon Carbite) fiber type DPFs and the collection performances of fine particles by various DPFs with different surface structures have been examined.
Technical Paper

Formation Process of Soot Precursors in a Laminar Flow Reactor

The Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) formation process from benzene was studied using a laminar flow reactor and GC-MS. In addition to PAH, acetylene and ethylene were observed. Without oxygen at temperatures over 1070 K, the amount of PAH and C2 species increased as the benzene concentration decreased. Addition of oxygen caused a linear decrease in the benzene concentration, and almost all of the benzene was consumed under stoichiometric conditions at all temperatures. At 1053 K, the concentrations of PAH and C2 species were not affected by the addition of oxygen. On the other hand, when the temperature was greater than 1070 K, the amount of PAH formed increased as the equivalence ratio increased, until the equivalence ratio was about 4. Above this equivalence ratio, the amounts decreased. Amounts of phenanthrene and biphenyl were large compared to those of other PAHs, which indicated that the dominant PAH formation path is the formation of phenanthrene via biphenyl.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measuring System for Engine Exhaust Solid Particle Number Emission - Performance and Vehicle Tests

The prototype solid particle counting system (SPCS) has been used to study solid particle emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles. As recommended by the PMP draft proposal, exhaust is diluted by a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS). The SPCS takes the sample from the CVS tunnel. Transient test cycles such as EPA FTP 75, EPA HWFET (EPA Highway Fuel Economy Cycle), and NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) were tested. The repeatability of the instrument was evaluated on the diesel vehicle for three continuous days. The instrument exhibits good repeatability. The differences for the EPA ftp 75, the EPA HWFET, and the NEDC in three continuous tests are ± 3.5%. The instrument is very sensitive as well and detects the driving differences. A large number of solid particles are found during the hard acceleration from both the gasoline and the diesel vehicles. Solid particle emissions decrease quickly at deceleration and when vehicles approach constant speed.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion with Variable Valve Timing

A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Study on Regeneration of Diesel Particle Trapper by Electrical Self-Heating Type Filter

The cordierite filter has been widely studied because of it's inherent, high capacities in the collection efficiency and heat-resistance. During the regeneration process of a cordierite filter, failure of ignition or incomplete burning propagation occurs, and additionally melts or cracks develop sometimes. In this study, the problems stated above are considered from a new standpoint, and a regeneration method that does not strictly depend on accumulated soot quantity is discussed. A filter made of SiC (Silicon carbide) possesses the requisite electric resistance and it's possible to heat it uniformly by using electricity. Accumulated soot can be uniformly incinerated not by burning propagation but by simultaneous ignition and burning of all accumulated soot. Silicon carbide has a higher resistance to heat than cordierite. Therefore, a self-heating filter made of SiC makes it possible to regenerate the filter in a wider range of accumulated soot.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions Improvement by RME in a High Boost and EGR Single Cylinder Engine

The biomass fuel is expected to solve the global warming due to a carbon neutral. A rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as biomass fuel was selected, and also a low sulfur diesel fuel is tested as reference fuel in this study. The experiments were carried out to improve diesel emissions and engine performance using high boost and high rate EGR system and a common rail injection system in a single cylinder engine. The diesel emissions and engine performance have been measured under the experimental conditions such as charging boost pressure from atmospheric pressure to 401.3kPa maximum and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40% maximum. RME contain about 10 mass % oxygen in the fuel molecule. Furthermore, RME does not contain aromatic hydrocarbons in the fuel. Due to these chemical properties, RME can be used at 40% high EGR condition.
Technical Paper

A New Type Partial Flow Dilution Tunnel with Geometrical Partitioning for Diesel Particulate Measurement

The authors have developed a new partial flow dilution tunnel (hereafter referred to as PPFT), whose principal device is a flux splitting gas divider, as a new means of measuring particulate emissions which can be applied to transient cycle testing of diesel engines. The advantage of this system is that it can achieve perfect constant velocity splitting by means of its structure, and theoretically can also maintain high splitting performance despite fluctuations in the exhaust flow rate, including those due to engine exhaust pulsation. We compared this system with a full tunnel by analyzing the basic performance of the system and measuring particulate matter (PM) using an actual vehicle engine.
Technical Paper

Thermal Conditioning of Exhaust Gas: Potential for Stabilizing Diesel Nano-Particles

Conditioning of diluted exhaust gas by Thermo-Conditioner prior to measurement has been proposed by the GRPE/PMP Research Council of the United Nation in order to achieve stability in nano-particle measurement. In this study the effect of thermo-conditioner on the thermo-physical behavior of nano-particle under different conditions have been clarified. Stability in measurement was also attempted depending on the characteristics of nano-particles. Quality of the raw exhaust gas, the dilution ratio and temperature, and the thermal conditioning temperature were considered as the main parameters. Exhaust gas from a medium duty DI diesel engine was used for analysis. Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer was used for measuring the concentration of nano-particles. It was concluded that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles within the size range of 15∼30 nm are significantly influenced by the thermal conditioning temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Boiling Point Differences of Two-Component Normal Paraffin Fuels on Combustion and Emission in CI Engines

The effect of boiling point difference as well as the flash boiling of two-component normal paraffin fuels on combustion and exhaust emission has been examined under different test conditions. To obtain a wide variation in boiling point between components different high boiling point fuels (n-undecane, n-tridecane and n-hexadecane) were blended with a low boiling point fuel (n-pentane) and different low boiling point fuels (n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) were blended with a high boiling point fuel (n-hexadecane). In addition the volume fraction of n-pentane was varied to have the best mixture ratio with n-tridecane. These fuel combinations exhibit different potential for flash boiling based on a certain ambient condition. The results indicate that though the potential for flash boiling is the highest for a mixture of n-pentane and n-hexadecane it emits about 20% higher PM than a mixture of n-pentane and n-tridecane.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Fuel Spray

Fuel design for internal combustion engines has been proposed in our study. In this concept, the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels are used in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the spray and combustion characteristics of the multicomponent fuels in detail. In the present study, the modeling of multicomponent spray vaporization was conducted using KIVA3V code. The physical fuel properties of multicomponent fuel were estimated using the source code of NIST Mixture Property Database. Peng-Robinson equation of state and fugacity calculation were applied to the estimation of liquid-vapor equilibrium in order to take account for non-ideal vaporization process. Two-zone model in which fuel droplet was divided into droplet surface and inner core was introduced in order to simply consider the temperature distribution in fuel droplet.
Technical Paper

Development of 3.5L V6 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - ESTEC 2GR-FKS/FXS -

The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1 Best-in-class power performance 2 Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin 3 Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving parts To achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under the NOx Level of Japanese 2009 Emission Regulation

In order to discuss future technical issues for urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system, it is necessary to assess various technical possibilities that would be applied to urea SCR systems which is capable of complying with future emission level requirements, for example Japanese 2009 emission regulation. In this paper, three measures (enhanced insulation on a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), aggressive urea solution injection and idling stop) are installed on a urea SCR system of a commercial engine system in order to achieve further NOx (nitrogen oxide) reductions. With combination of these three measures, NOx is drastically reduced to the levels lower than 0.7 g/kWh, which is a NOx limit value of the Japanese 2009 emission regulation. NH3 (ammonia) and HCN (hydro cyanide) are also measured as unregulated harmful components.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

Real-Time and Direct Measurement of Pollutants in Exhaust Gas Utilizing Supersonic Jet / Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization

Supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (Jet-REMPI) technique was focused on the analyzing method for gas mixture like exhaust gas from automobiles. In this method, when the mass number and wavelength of excitation laser are determined adequately, the target compound can be monitored selectively. We developed a new analyzer utilizing REMPI method. Using this analyzer, real-time monitoring of exhaust gas from a motorcycle and diesel vehicles was conducted. As a result of real-time monitoring test of the vehicles, concentrations of aromatic compounds like benzene toluene etc. were quantified and real-time changes of their concentrations were observed.
Journal Article

Miller-PCCI Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine with VVT

A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism has been applied in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The effective compression ratio (εeff) was lowered by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), while keeping the expansion ratio constant. Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, adopting the Miller-cycle, was experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. Significant improvements of NOx and soot emissions were achieved for a wide range of engine speeds and loads, frequently used in a transient mode test. The operating range of the Miller-PCCI combustion has been expanded up to an IMEP of 1.30 MPa.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diesel Combustion Using of Wide Range, High Boosted and Cooled EGR System by Single Cylinder Engine

For reducing exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, the authors made an experimental study of diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions have been measured using a wide range and high EGR rate under the conditions of high boost intake pressure. The engine test cell has been equipped the external supercharger that is able to raise the boost pressure to 500 kPa, and also equipped the EGR system to increase the EGR rate until 50% under the 500 kPa boost condition. In various test conditions of load and engine speeds the authors have obtained the results, that is, NOx has been reduced drastically without increasing Particulate Matter (PM).