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Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-0204
The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

Series Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion for a Light Truck - Optimizing the Thermostatic Power Management

2007-09-16
2007-24-0080
The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator, and this provides part of the motivation for a simulation-based approach to development of the system power management. The vehicle is a 4×4 truck weighing 5112 kg and intended for both on- and off-road use.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits on a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3277
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines offer a good potential for achieving high fuel efficiency while virtually eliminating NOx and soot emissions from the exhaust. However, realizing the full fuel economy potential at the vehicle level depends on the size of the HCCI operating range. The usable HCCI range is determined by the knock limit on the upper end and the misfire limit at the lower end. Previously proven high sensitivity of the HCCI process to thermal conditions leads to a hypothesis that combustion chamber deposits (CCD) could directly affect HCCI combustion, and that insight about this effect can be helpful in expanding the low-load limit. A combustion chamber conditioning process was carried out in a single-cylinder gasoline-fueled engine with exhaust re-breathing to study CCD formation rates and their effect on combustion. Burn rates accelerated significantly over the forty hours of running under typical HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Fluid Deaeration Device for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0308
The attractiveness of the hydraulic hybrid concept stems from the high power density and efficiency of the pump/motors and the accumulator. This is particularly advantageous in applications to heavy vehicles, as high mass translates into high rates of energy flows through the system. Using dry case hydraulic pumps further improves the energy conversion in the system, as they have 1-4% better efficiency than traditional wet-case pumps. However, evacuation of fluid from the case introduces air bubbles and it becomes imperative to address the deaeration problems. This research develops a bubble elimination efficiency testing apparatus (BEETA) to establish quantitative results characterizing bubble removal from hydraulic fluid in a cyclone deaeration device. The BEETA system mixes the oil and air according to predetermined ratio, passes the mixture through a cyclone deaeration device, and then measures the concentration of air in the exiting fluid.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0175
The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Options for an Electric Vehicle with Hydraulic Regeneration System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0868
Energy security and climate change challenges provide a strong impetus for investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) concepts. EVs link two major infrastructures, the transportation and the electric power grid. This provides a chance to bring other sources of energy into transportation, displace petroleum and, with the right mix of power generation sources, reduce CO₂ emissions. The main obstacles for introducing a large numbers of EVs are cost, battery weight, and vehicle range. Battery health is also a factor, both directly and indirectly, by introducing limits on depth of discharge. This paper considers a low-cost path for extending the range of a small urban EV by integrating a parallel hydraulic system for harvesting and reusing braking energy. The idea behind the concept is to avoid replacement of lead-acid or small Li-Ion batteries with a very expensive Li-Ion pack, and instead use a low-cost hydraulic system to achieve comparable range improvements.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0668
Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Design Under Uncertainty and Assessment of Performance Reliability of a Dual-Use Medium Truck with Hydraulic-Hybrid Powertrain and Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-1396
Medium trucks constitute a large market segment of the commercial transportation sector, and are also used widely for military tactical operations. Recent technological advances in hybrid powertrains and fuel cell auxiliary power units have enabled design alternatives that can improve fuel economy and reduce emissions dramatically. However, deterministic design optimization of these configurations may yield designs that are optimal with respect to performance but raise concerns regarding the reliability of achieving that performance over lifetime. In this article we identify and quantify uncertainties due to modeling approximations or incomplete information. We then model their propagation using Monte Carlo simulation and perform sensitivity analysis to isolate statistically significant uncertainties. Finally, we formulate and solve a series of reliability-based optimization problems and quantify tradeoffs between optimality and reliability.
Technical Paper

Dual-Use Engine Calibration:

2005-04-11
2005-01-1549
Modern diesel engines manufactured for commercial vehicles are calibrated to meet EPA emissions regulations. Many of the technologies and strategies typically incorporated to meet emissions targets compromise engine performance and efficiency. When used in military applications, however, engine performance and efficiency are of utmost importance in combat conditions or in remote locations where fuel supplies are scarce. This motivates the study of the potential to utilize the flexibility of emissions-reduction technologies toward optimizing engine performance while still keeping the emissions within tolerable limits. The study was conducted on a modern medium-duty International V-8 diesel engine with variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The performance-emissions tradeoffs were explored using design of experiments and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

2005-05-11
2005-01-2092
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In

2006-04-03
2006-01-1151
This study investigates the impact of transient engine operation on the emissions formed during a tip-in procedure. A medium-duty production V-8 diesel engine is used to conduct experiments in which the rate of pedal position change is varied. Highly-dynamic emissions instrumentation is implemented to provide real-time measurement of NOx and particulate. Engine subsystems are analyzed to understand their role in emissions formation. As the rate of pedal position change increases, the emissions of NOx and particulates are affected dramatically. An instantaneous load increase was found to produce peak NOx values 1.8 times higher and peak particulate concentrations an order of magnitude above levels corresponding to a five-second ramp-up. The results provide insight into relationship between driver aggressiveness and diesel emissions applicable to development of drive-by-wire systems. In addition, they provide direct guidance for devising low-emission strategies for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1087
Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Technical Paper

Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions - HMMWV Case Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0443
This paper describes a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a vehicle system simulation, and its use for evaluating engine performance when integrated with a conventional and a hybrid electric driveline/vehicle. This engine-in-the-loop (EIL) system uses fast instruments and emission analyzers to investigate how critical in-vehicle transients affect engine system response and transient emissions. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study two different powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) System for the HMMWV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0442
The development and use of a simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) for a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is presented here. While the primary purpose of an ISA is to provide electric power for additional accessories, it can also be utilized for mild hybridization of the powertrain. In order to explore ISA's potential for improving HMMWV's fuel economy, an ISA model capable of both producing and absorbing mechanical power has been developed in Simulink. Based on the driver's power request and the State of Charge of the battery (SOC), the power management algorithm determines whether the ISA should contribute power to, or absorb power from the crankshaft. The system is also capable of capturing some of the braking energy and using it to charge the battery. The ISA model and the power management algorithm have been integrated in the Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM), a SIMULINK-based vehicle model previously developed at the University of Michigan.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Modeling and Evaluation of the Engine Options in Conventional and Mild-Hybrid Powertrain

2013-04-08
2013-01-1449
The focus of this paper is on developing, modeling and simulation framework for a bias free comparison of different engine concepts in a conventional and hybrid configuration. The first unique contribution of this paper is in the development of a shift logic algorithm that allows tailoring the shift schedule to unique engine characteristics in a consistent manner. The shift schedule is intentionally generated in a generic manner by using identical set of rules for all engines. Therefore, the methodology allows a fair comparison of different engine concepts, while taking into account the individual features of the engine i.e. speed range, efficiency and maximum performance. The latter establishes a baseline for the subsequent study of hybrid configurations. The second unique contribution is the hybrid strategy optimization algorithm, also tailored to a particular engine configuration.
Technical Paper

A Heuristic Supervisory Controller for a 48V Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Fuel Economy and Battery Aging

2019-01-15
2019-01-0079
Most studies on supervisory controllers of hybrid electric vehicles consider only fuel economy in the objective function. Taking into consideration the importance of the energy storage system health and its impact on the vehicle’s functionality, cost, and warranty, recent studies have included battery degradation as the second objective function by proposing different energy management strategies and battery life estimation methods. In this paper, a rule-based supervisory controller is proposed that splits the torque demand based not only on fuel consumption, but also on the battery capacity fade using the concept of severity factor. For this aim, the severity factor is calculated at each time step of a driving cycle using a look-up table with three different inputs including c-rate, working temperature, and state of charge of the battery. The capacity loss of the battery is then calculated using a semi-empirical capacity fade model.
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