This SAE Recommended Practice applies to rigid bumper or rigid structure points and flexible components of passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and light trucks. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
The evolution of the automotive transmission has changed rapidly in the last decade, partly due to the advantages of highly sophisticated electronic controls. This evolution has resulted in modern automatic transmissions that offer more control, stability, and convenience to the driver. Electronic Transmission Controls contains 68 technical papers from SAE and other international organizations written since 1995 on this rapidly growing area of automotive electronics. This book breaks down the topic into two sections. The section on Stepped Transmissions covers recent developments in regular and 4-wheel drive transmissions from major auto manufacturers including DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Toyota, Honda, and Ford. Technology covered in this section includes: smooth shift control; automatic transmission efficiency; mechatronic systems; fuel saving technologies; shift control using information from vehicle navigation systems; and fuzzy logic control.
This SAE Standard covers reinforced hose, or hose assemblies, intended for conducting liquid and gaseous dichlorodifluoromethane (refrigerant 12) in automotive air-conditioning systems. The hose shall be designed to minimize permeation of refrigerant 12 and contamination of the system and to be serviceable over a temperature range of −30 to 120 °C (−22 to 248 °F). Specific construction details are to be agreed upon between user and supplier.1 NOTE—R12 refrigerant has been placed on a banned substance list due to its ozone depletion characteristics. SAE J51 specification will be phased out as new automotive A/C systems are using R134a. SAE J2064 is the Standard for refrigerant 134a hose. For refrigerant 134a use, refer to SAE J2064.
"Effective particle or domain size" is a phrase used in X-ray diffraction literature to describe the size of the coherent regions within a material which are diffracting. Coherency in this sense means diffracting as a unit. Small particle size causes X-ray line broadening and as such can be measured. It has been shown related to substructure as observed in transmission electron microscopy. Particle size is affected by hardening, cold working, and fatigue; conversely, there is increasing evidence that particle size, per se, affects both static and dynamic strength.
This SAE Recommended Practice defines flywheel configuration to promote standardization of flywheels for dry spring-loaded clutches. Clutches to fit flywheels with configurations per this document may not be commercially available. Availability should be ascertained prior to flywheel design Figure 1 and Table 1A.