This SAE Recommended Practice applies to rigid bumper or rigid structure points and flexible components of passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and light trucks. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
This SAE Standard provides a definition of a rainflow file format. This type of simple text file would contain all relevant information about the rainflow cycle content of a time history. Included information are Comments, Signal Range, Signal Mean, Number of Cycles, Signal Maximum, Signal Minimum. Rainflow cycle counting has become the most accepted procedure for identifying material fatigue relevant cycles in complex variable amplitude load time histories. The cycle counting methods account for the effects of material plasticity and material memory of prior deformation, and the resulting compressed history information is used by durability analysts to estimate the effects of a given service or test history.
This SAE Standard covers reinforced hose, or hose assemblies, intended for conducting liquid and gaseous dichlorodifluoromethane (refrigerant 12) in automotive air-conditioning systems. The hose shall be designed to minimize permeation of refrigerant 12 and contamination of the system and to be serviceable over a temperature range of −30 to 120 °C (−22 to 248 °F). Specific construction details are to be agreed upon between user and supplier.1 NOTE—R12 refrigerant has been placed on a banned substance list due to its ozone depletion characteristics. SAE J51 specification will be phased out as new automotive A/C systems are using R134a. SAE J2064 is the Standard for refrigerant 134a hose. For refrigerant 134a use, refer to SAE J2064.
This collection covers advances in the development and application of models and tools involved in multi-dimensional engine modeling: advances in chemical kinetics, combustion and spray modeling, turbulence, heat transfer, mesh generation, and approaches targeting improved computational efficiency. Papers employing multi-dimensional modeling to gain a deeper understanding of processes related to turbulent transport, transient phenomena, and chemically reacting, two-phase flows are included in this collection.
1.1 A bolt-load retention (BLR) test is a practical test to determine the bolt load of a fastener joint with time and at given temperatures. There are three types of BLR tests described in this standard, namely general-purpose test, design-purpose test, and screening material test. A general-purpose BLR test may be used for screening materials, while a design-purpose BLR test is usually used to verify the BLR behavior of a specific joint. The screening material test is an example of the general-purpose test for typical automotive applications. 1.2 The test procedures provides guidance in the following areas: (a) BLR sample and test fixture, (b) test fastener, washer and nut, (c) bolt-load measurement and data acquisition, (d) heating device, (e) initial loading, (f) baseline test, and (g) instrumentation of strain gages and calibration (see Appendix B).
Blast cleaning may be defined as a secondary manufacturing process in which a suitable stream of solid particles is propelled with sufficient velocity against a work surface to cause a cleaning or abrading action when it comes in contact with the workpiece. As indicated in the definition, blast cleaning may be employed for a variety of purposes. Ordinarily, it is considered as a method for removing sand from castings, burrs or scale from forgings, mill products, or heat treated parts; to promote machinability, and to minimize the possibility of interference in actual operation. In addition to this use, blast cleaning also produces an excellent surface for industrial coatings. All these objectives are often accomplished in the one operation.