This SAE Definition Document contains historic voltage regulation methods and test requirements that have not been previously published. The purpose of this document is to recommend a set of definitions and practices for use on current and future 12 V vehicle electric power regulation and control systems in internal combustion engine road vehicles. This document is not intended to include nor exclude regulators used in higher voltage vehicle electrical systems. The term “generator” rather than “alternator” will be used even though these terms may be used interchangeably in practice.
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to apply to lamps, batteries, heaters, radios, and similar equipment for operation with mobile or automotive diesel engines. Twenty-four V systems have long been used for heavy-duty services because 24 V permit operating 12 V systems in series-parallel. Thirty-two V systems have been used for marine, railroad-car lighting, and other uses. Generators, storage batteries, starting motors, lighting, and auxiliary electrical equipment shall be for nominal system ratings of 12, 24, or 32 V as determined by the power requirements of the application. It is recommended that no intermediate voltages be considered. The combination of a 24 V starting motor and two 12 V batteries connected in series for cranking is considered practical where it can be adapted to the installation.
a) Creation of a standard specific to integration of energy storage systems into electrification of buses of all types which comprehends safety, performance, life and cost considerations utilizing worldwide standards as references in order to maximize existing work. The document applies to both purpose built electric buses and retrofit electrified buses. b) Harmonization of these existing standards achieve specific objectives that provide guidance in effective and safe designs of electrificed buses which utilize battery pack systems as the energy storage device. c) Future Considerations
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery cathode active material. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as these are usually established between the vendor and customer. It is not within the scope of this document to examine the rheological properties of the cathode material in slurry since such properties are influenced by the conductive additive and the solid loading, which are determined through discussion between the manufacturer and user. It is not within the scope of this document to examine the electrochemical properties of cathode materials since these are influenced by electrode design. The committee considers that it is impossible to establish an electrode design that would be appropriate for all cathode active materials.
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery electrolyte. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as this is usually established between the vendor and customer.
The special risks associated with conducting crash tests on E-Vehicles can be divided into two main categories; 1) thermal activity inside the battery (resulting from electrical or mechanical abuse) may lead to energetic emission of harmful and/or flammable gases, thermal runaway, and potentially fire, and 2) the risk of electrocution. Procedures to ensure protection from all types of risk must be integrated into the entire crash test process. This informational report is intended to provide guidance in this endeavor using current best practices at the time of this publication. As both battery technology and battery management system technology is in a phase of expansion, the contents of this report must then be gaged against current technology of the time, and updated periodically to retain its applicability and usefulness.
This SAE standard applies to all electric battery-powered machines that fall within the scope of SAE J2130. Purpose To define a uniform method of determining the time a battery-powered machine will continue operating normally with a given set of batteries.
This SAE Information Report is a summary of the initial recommendations of the SAE committee on Dual/Higher Voltage Vehicle Electrical Systems regarding the application of higher voltages in vehicle systems. This document does not attempt to address the technical merits of specific voltages or electrical system architectures.
E-cars are oversupplied and changing in all respects but in this frenzy of birth and death the future is being created with hybrid cars rapidly gaining market share. The sales of pure electric cars are likely to take off in the second half of the coming decade as certain technical and cost challenges are resolved. Toyota and Tesla have hugely benefitted from correct market positioning. Yet, Toyota is now betting strongly on fuel- cell hybrids, and Tesla on mainstream pure electric cars. A vicious shakeout of car and battery manufacturers has commenced with the winners expecting a handsome pay-off. IDTechEx finds that the global sales of hybrid and pure electric cars will triple to $178.9 billion in 2024 as they are transformed. For example, components are becoming integrated; the range extender, as an optional extra, breaks down the difference between pure electric and hybrid. Car manufacturers vertically integrate and collaborate, competing with their suppliers.
This report looks closely at global trends in light electric vehicles’ (LEVs) technology, manufacture and market drivers such as legislation and the fact that several Chinese cities are banning or severely restricting LEVs. In the last few years, nearly every nation has bought ebikes from China, and in some cases, the volumes are now significant. Sales will reach 130 million yearly before 2025, making it one of the world's largest industries. The report encompasses over 70 brands, and gives forecasts of sales numbers, unit prices and total market value for 2013-2023. A significant percentage of ebikes sold are scooters in that they have the driver's feet rest on a platform - they are not straddled by the driver. Today, the LEV industry is dominated by large bicycle companies, due to their access to distribution. In the future, these companies will face major competition, and may be pushed aside by car, motorcycle, and car parts companies.
The electric vehicle industry - land, water and air - is rapidly rising to become a market of over $533 billion by 2025. Some run entirely on harvested energy as with solar lake boats. Others recycle energy as with regenerative braking of cars, buses and military vehicles harvesting kinetic energy. Others use different forms of harvesting either to charge the traction batteries, or to drive autonomous device. In some cases, harvesting is making completely new forms of electric vehicle possible such as "glider" Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) that can stay at sea for years, gaining electricity from both wave power and sunshine. Multiple forms of energy harvesting on one vehicle are becoming more common from cars to superyachts.