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Nonlinear and Hybrid Systems in Automotive Control

A new generation of strategies for vehicle and engine control systems has become necessary because of increasing requirements for accuracy, ride, comfort, safety, complexity, and emission levels. In contrast with earlier systems, new control systems are based on dynamic physical models and the principles of advanced nonlinear control. With contributions from leading scientists in the field, this book presents an overview of research in this rapidly-expanding area. New approaches to solving theoretical problems, as well as numerous systems and control research issues, are covered.

Voltage Regulators for Automotive-Type Generators

This SAE Definition Document contains historic voltage regulation methods and test requirements that have not been previously published. The purpose of this document is to recommend a set of definitions and practices for use on current and future 12 V vehicle electric power regulation and control systems in internal combustion engine road vehicles. This document is not intended to include nor exclude regulators used in higher voltage vehicle electrical systems. The term “generator” rather than “alternator” will be used even though these terms may be used interchangeably in practice.

Pneumatic Spring Terminology

This pneumatic spring terminology has been developed to assist engineers and designers in the preparation of specifications and descriptive material relating to pneumatic springs and their components. It does not include gas supply or control systems.


This pneumatic spring terminology has been developed to assist engineers and designers in the preparation of specifications and descriptive material relating to pneumatic springs and their components. It does not include gas supply or control systems.

Brake Hydraulic Component Flow Rate Measurement for High Differential Pressure (>5 bar)

This recommended practice provides a method, test set-up, and test conditions for brake hydraulic component flow rate measurement for high differential pressure (>5 bar) flow conditions. It is intended for hydraulic brake components which affect the brake fluid flow characteristics in a hydraulic brake circuit, that are part of a circuit for which the flow characteristics are important to system operation, and that are exposed to high operating pressure differentials (in the 5 to 100 bar range). Typical applications may include measurement of flow through chassis controls valve bodies, orifices in the brake system such as in flow bolts, junction blocks, and master cylinders, and through brake pipe configurations.

Class A Application/Definition

This SAE Information Report will explain the differences between Class A, B, and C networks and clarify through examples, the differences in applications. Special attention will be given to a listing of functions that could be attached to a Class A communications network.


Since little data exists to provide appropriate values for control parameters that would be appropriate for mature drivers, the following recommendations are of a general nature. However, they are based upon the current understanding of the aging processes that characterize mature drivers. Notwithstanding the lack of an extensive amount of data in this field, the dissemination of this SAE Information Report is considered to be appropriate and timely in light of the large increase in the number of mature drivers on the public roads, and because of the need to at least initiate efforts toward developing an information report covering this issue. It is realized that there may be cases where specific recommendations may conflict with vehicle packaging and/or operational requirements. Deviation from the recommendations may be necessary and permissible to achieve the best overall system performance.

Remote Steering Control Systems

This SAE Information Report establishes a uniform procedure for assuring the manufactured quality, installed utility and performance of automotive remote steering controls other than those provided by the vehicle manufacturer (OEM). These products are intended to provide driving capability to persons with physical disabilities. The adaptive modifications seek to compensate for lost or reduced function in the extremities of the driver with a disability. Remote steering controls are designed to provide a steering input device alternative to the OEM steering wheel that either reduces the required input force, changes the required range of motion or changes the location of the steering control or any combination of the above. These controls supplement by power, other than by the driver’s own muscular efforts, the force output of the driver with a disability.

Identification of Self-Propelled Sweepers and Cleaning Equipment Part 2 - Machines with a Gross Vehicle Mass Up to 5000 kg

This SAE Standard applies to all self-propelled machines with a gross vehicle mass up to 5000 kg that are utilized to clean material from outside paved areas, parkland, floors in non-residential buildings and areas principally exposed to pedestrian traffic. Primary methods for material removal can be by mechanical, pneumatic, washing and flushing systems, or in a combination of any system.


Nondestructive tests are those tests which detect factors related to the serviceability or quality of a part or material without limiting its usefulness. Material defects such as surface cracks, laps, pits, internal inclusions, bursts, shrink, seam, hot tears, and composition analysis can be detected. Sometimes their dimensions and exact location can be determined. Such tests can usually be made rapidly. Processing results such as hardness, case depth, wall thickness, ductility, decarburization, cracks, apparent tensile strength, grain size, and lack of weld penetration or fusion may be detectable and measurable. Service results such as corrosion and fatigue cracking may be detected and measured by nondestructive test methods. In many cases, imperfections can be automatically detected so that parts or materials can be classified.

Electronic Control Systems

Electronic Control Systems describes the evolution of electronic control systems and examines growth experienced in the four main system categories - safety and convenience, powertrain, body controls, and entertainment and communications. The system trends and technologies are covered in detail. The report concludes with a summary of the challenges, changes on the horizon, and a discussion of how sustainable competitive advantage can perhaps be achieved.

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Sound Design in the Passenger Compartment with Active Noise Control in the Air Intake System

In the future, the requirements of acoustic behavior in air intake systems will continue to increase. Active systems will be necessary to reach the higher legislative standards and customer expectations regarding noise levels. The optimization of the Active Noise Control System regarding the sound design in the interior is based on the transfer function between the engine and the passenger compartment as well as the design of the air intake system. This paper shows the development process, with a focus on the investigation of transfer functions in passenger cars and the computational calculation for the system configuration.