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Technical Paper

Complex Air Path Management Systems and Necessary Controller Structures for Future High Dynamic Requirements

The future worldwide emission regulations will request a drastic decrease of Diesel engine tailpipe emissions. Depending on the planned application and the real official regulations, a further strong decrease of engine out emissions is necessary, even though the utilized exhaust after-treatment systems are very powerful. To reduce NOx emissions internally, the external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is known as the most effective way. Due to the continuously increasing requirements regarding specific power, dynamic behavior and low emissions, future air path systems have to fulfill higher requirements and, consequently, become more and more complex, e.g. arrangements with a 2-stage turbo charging or 2-stage EGR system with different stages of cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Self-Energizing Electro-Hydraulic Brake (SEHB)

A new hydraulic brake utilizing a self-energizing effect is developed at the Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls (IFAS). In addition to a conventional hydraulic braking actuator, it features a supporting cylinder conducting the braking forces into the vehicle undercarriage. The braking force pressurizes the fluid in the supporting cylinder and is the power source for pressure control of the actuator. The new brake needs no external hydraulic power supply. The only input is an electrical braking force reference signal from a superior control unit. One major advantage of the SEHB concept is the direct control of the actual braking torque despite friction coefficient changes. The prototype design, presented in this paper, is done in two phases. The first prototype is based on an automotive brake caliper. It is set up to gain practical experience about the hydraulic self-energisation and to prepare the laboratory automation environment.
Technical Paper

Lower Emissions in Commercial Diesel Engines through Waste Heat Recovery

In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Fuel Properties and Sensitivity Analysis of Non-Aromatic and Aromatic Fuels Used in a Single Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
Technical Paper

Future Emission Concepts versus Fuel Quality Aspects - Challenges and Technical Concepts

From current point of view future emission legislations for heavy-duty engines as well as industrial engines will require complex engine internal measures in combination with sophisticated aftertreatment systems as well as according control strategies to reach the emission targets. With EU VI, JP 09/NLT and US10 for heavy-duty engines as well as future Tier4 final or stage IV emission legislation for industrial applications, EGR + DPF + SCR probably will be combined for most applications and therefore quite similar technological approaches will be followed up in Europe as well as in the US and in Japan. Most “emerging markets” all over the world follow up the European, US or Japanese emission legislation with a certain time delay. Therefore similar technologies need to be introduced in these markets in the future. On the other hand specific market boundary conditions and requirements have to be considered for the development of tailored system concepts in these markets.
Technical Paper

Towards an Integral Combustion Model for Model-Based Control of PCCI Engines

Physics-based models in a closed-loop feedback control of a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine can improve the combustion efficiency and potentially reduce harmful NOx and soot emissions. A stand-alone multi-zone combustion model has been proposed in the literature using a physics-based mixing approach. The scalar dissipation rate emerged as the determining parameter in the model for mixing among different zones in the mixture fraction space. However, the calculation of the scalar dissipation rate depends on three approaches: three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) combustion simulations based on representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model, tabulation, or an empirical algebraic model of the scalar dissipation rate fitted for the given operating conditions of the engine. While the 3-D CFD approach provides accurate results, it is computationally too expensive to use the multi-zone model in closed-loop control.