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Technical Paper

Considerations about Residual Stress Due to Stamping Process in Fatigue Life Prediction

Usually in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analyses, Computer Aided Design (CAD) data is meshed and analyzed with regard to displacements and stresses. So far, it is not common to account for residual stresses due to the manufacturing process in these analyses. This work proposes a methodology based on simplified abaqus Standard/Explicit models to evaluate residual stresses due to stamping and bending manufacturing process in truck rails and suggests a methodology to use this residual stress data in truck frame CAE durability analysis making it possible to compare how different a predicted fatigue life can be when residual stresses are considered.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics and Prognostics via Telematics for Commercial Vehicles: On-Board Systems

The introduction of wireless communications capability into vehicles provides a means to offer new services centered on remote monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics for vehicle systems linked to the communications channel. This paper examines some important elements of on-board system design necessary to provide these services and indicates how they might be linked into an off-board “decision center” to provide effective services for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Co-fueling of Urea for Diesel Cars and Trucks

Urea SCR is an established method to reduce NOx in dilute exhaust gas. The method is being used currently with stationary powerplants, and successful trials on motor vehicles have been conducted. The reason most often cited for rejecting urea SCR is lack of urea supply infrastructure, yet urea and other high nitrogen products are traded as commodities on the world market as a fertilizer grade, and an industrial grade is emerging. For a subset of commercial vehicles, urea can be provided by service personnel at designated terminals. But this approach does not support long distance carriers and personal use vehicles. The preferred delivery method is to add urea during vehicle refueling through a common fuel nozzle and fill pipe interface: urea / diesel co-fueling. Aqueous urea is well suited to delivery in this fashion.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Rigid Body Modes of Engine Mounting System Due to Mount Rates Variability

While the engine mount rates need to be optimized to achieve the required frequency alignment and modal decoupling for quality performance, the robustness of the system needs to be studied as well. If a system exhibits acceptable modal characteristics with nominal optimized rates, the sensitivity of the system to variation of the rates from their nominal values affects the robustness of the system. Different factors can cause variation of the rates. Among them are rate changes from part to part arising from manufacturing process. In this paper the effect of mount rates variability on the modal characteristics is discussed. Monte Carlo simulation is used to predict how the rigid body modes and their couplings vary when the rate for each mount changes according to its statistical parameters. Through different examples the statistical variability of the modes to the rates variability is presented.
Technical Paper

Reducing High Frequency Driveshaft Radiated Noise by Polymer Liners

In automotive industry inserting cardboard liners or foam in the dirveshaft to prevent them from functioning as a path or amplifier to high frequency gear whine excitation is a common practice. Due to limited damping capability, these liners, however, have limited effectiveness and may not prevent or effectively reduce the shaft radiated noise. This paper addresses the feasibility and performance of polymers as an alternative lining material and technique. Through experimental investigations it has been shown that the polymer liners in reducing the driveshaft radiated noise are more effective than the cardboard liners.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

Managing System Effects of Traction Bars Implemented on a Hotchkiss Suspension

This paper describes the implementation effort behind adding a pair of suspension links between the axle and frame of a light truck with a Hotchkiss-type suspension. These links, referred to as anti-windup bars (or traction bars), were introduced into an existing system to improve NVH performance; however, doing so required modifications to maintain other vehicle attributes, including vehicle safety and durability life. The authors address the management of these attributes and related design decisions for the components involved, focusing on the conflicting requirements involved. Physical vehicle testing, using design revisions recommended by Finite Element (FE) simulations, was performed to confirm component performance and related system behavior. Test results suggested improvements to the FE models that were required to more closely approximate the vehicle's behavior.
Technical Paper

CAE Approach for Light Truck Frame Durability Evaluation Due to Payload Increase

The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable Self Contained Phase Shifting Digital Shearography for Composite Material Testing

The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has become increasingly widespread. With this increase in use, techniques for non-destructive testing (NDT) have become more and more important. Various optical NDT inspective methods such as holography, moiré techniques, and shearography have been used for material testing. Among these methods, shearography appears to be most practical. Shearography has a simple optical setup due to its “self-referencing” system, and it is relatively insensitive against rigid-body motions. Measurements of displacement derivatives, and thus strain directly, rather than the displacement itself is achieved through this method. Therefore shearography detects defects in objects by correlating anomalies of strain which are usually easier than correlating the anomalies of the displacement itself, as in holography. To date shearography has shown potential as a NDT tool for identifying defects in small structures.
Technical Paper

Pickups Vehicle Dynamics: Ride and Skate

The driver judges his vehicle based on subjective aspects. Vehicle dynamics characteristics including ride and handling have a major impact on this evaluation. For this reason, vehicle manufactures have grown investments in order to improve vehicle dynamics behavior. Subjective evaluation and customer satisfaction research show which dynamic characteristics need to be improved. CAE models, after being validated based on experimental measures, give a good insight on vehicle dynamic behavior and guide change proposals. At end, new subjective evaluations and measures are carried out in order to check the real improvement of CAE proposals. This work shows the use of the described methodology for a pickup vehicle dynamics evaluation. One of the major complains of pickup drives is related to ride quality. Thinking of that feature the evaluation process considers several phenomena, such as abruptness, front topping, front bottoming, head toss and rear aftershake.
Technical Paper

Application of LIN Network Interface for Ford South America Vehicles

Some communication buses are too powerful and expensive for simple digital on/off operations such as activating lights, wipers, windows, etc. For these applications the LIN bus is currently the most promising communication protocol across the world's automotive industry. This paper addresses a study using LIN (Local Interconnect Network) for Ford South America vehicles. This will propose a new electrical architecture designed with LIN network, which will be replacing the conventional rear and front lights cables in Trucks, where other higher protocols, such as CAN, are not cost effective. LIN is a new low cost serial communication system intended to be used for distributed electronic system that will allow gaining further quality enhancement and cost reduction on cables, connectors and switches.
Technical Paper

Development of Pneumatic Suspension Type Full Air for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions. For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.
Technical Paper

Deconstruction of UN38.3 into a Process Flowchart

This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Full Air Pneumatic Suspension Type for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and its applications have becoming increasingly relevant for commercial vehicles to provide dynamic ride comfort to driver and reduce the load impact onto driver and or cargo. This paper shows the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles and its dynamic influence. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension´s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladed. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

A Systems Engineering Approach to Engine Cooling Design

This paper is divided into two parts: Part 1 - Systems engineering fundamentals Part 2 - Engine cooling design from a systems engineering perspective In Part 1, we explain how the task of designing a complex system can be made easier by the application of Systems Engineering principles. (This part is self contained and may be of general interest to those who have no special interest in engine cooling). Systems Engineering provides three key benefits: It facilitates communication: Requirements define the problem, they allow team members to see their own work in context Key information is standardized and made easier to visualize and verify. An “audit trail” is maintained ensuring that important information is documented, and human memory is no longer relied on for important decisions. Translates requirements into design.
Technical Paper

Multi–Branch Torsional Vibration in Geared Rotating Systems

Torsional vibration usually causes noticeable sound disturbances, mechanical shakings, and component fatigue problems. It exists at one or more periods of the operating range in torsional systems. Determination of critical speeds or torsional natural frequencies in a design stage makes it possible to avoid early fractures and costly repairs of the machinery. In this paper, the method for predicting speed–related excitation frequencies of complex rotating systems is discussed and the computer program is developed and tested by actual examples. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of multi–branch torsional vibration systems with one or more junction points are calculated. A user–friendly graphic interface for modeling is presented. Some practical examples are given and the results of the simulations are compared to those obtained analytically as well as those given in references.