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Technical Paper

Considerations about Residual Stress Due to Stamping Process in Fatigue Life Prediction

Usually in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analyses, Computer Aided Design (CAD) data is meshed and analyzed with regard to displacements and stresses. So far, it is not common to account for residual stresses due to the manufacturing process in these analyses. This work proposes a methodology based on simplified abaqus Standard/Explicit models to evaluate residual stresses due to stamping and bending manufacturing process in truck rails and suggests a methodology to use this residual stress data in truck frame CAE durability analysis making it possible to compare how different a predicted fatigue life can be when residual stresses are considered.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Rigid Body Modes of Engine Mounting System Due to Mount Rates Variability

While the engine mount rates need to be optimized to achieve the required frequency alignment and modal decoupling for quality performance, the robustness of the system needs to be studied as well. If a system exhibits acceptable modal characteristics with nominal optimized rates, the sensitivity of the system to variation of the rates from their nominal values affects the robustness of the system. Different factors can cause variation of the rates. Among them are rate changes from part to part arising from manufacturing process. In this paper the effect of mount rates variability on the modal characteristics is discussed. Monte Carlo simulation is used to predict how the rigid body modes and their couplings vary when the rate for each mount changes according to its statistical parameters. Through different examples the statistical variability of the modes to the rates variability is presented.
Technical Paper

Reducing High Frequency Driveshaft Radiated Noise by Polymer Liners

In automotive industry inserting cardboard liners or foam in the dirveshaft to prevent them from functioning as a path or amplifier to high frequency gear whine excitation is a common practice. Due to limited damping capability, these liners, however, have limited effectiveness and may not prevent or effectively reduce the shaft radiated noise. This paper addresses the feasibility and performance of polymers as an alternative lining material and technique. Through experimental investigations it has been shown that the polymer liners in reducing the driveshaft radiated noise are more effective than the cardboard liners.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

Managing System Effects of Traction Bars Implemented on a Hotchkiss Suspension

This paper describes the implementation effort behind adding a pair of suspension links between the axle and frame of a light truck with a Hotchkiss-type suspension. These links, referred to as anti-windup bars (or traction bars), were introduced into an existing system to improve NVH performance; however, doing so required modifications to maintain other vehicle attributes, including vehicle safety and durability life. The authors address the management of these attributes and related design decisions for the components involved, focusing on the conflicting requirements involved. Physical vehicle testing, using design revisions recommended by Finite Element (FE) simulations, was performed to confirm component performance and related system behavior. Test results suggested improvements to the FE models that were required to more closely approximate the vehicle's behavior.
Technical Paper

CAE Approach for Light Truck Frame Durability Evaluation Due to Payload Increase

The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper

Pickups Vehicle Dynamics: Ride and Skate

The driver judges his vehicle based on subjective aspects. Vehicle dynamics characteristics including ride and handling have a major impact on this evaluation. For this reason, vehicle manufactures have grown investments in order to improve vehicle dynamics behavior. Subjective evaluation and customer satisfaction research show which dynamic characteristics need to be improved. CAE models, after being validated based on experimental measures, give a good insight on vehicle dynamic behavior and guide change proposals. At end, new subjective evaluations and measures are carried out in order to check the real improvement of CAE proposals. This work shows the use of the described methodology for a pickup vehicle dynamics evaluation. One of the major complains of pickup drives is related to ride quality. Thinking of that feature the evaluation process considers several phenomena, such as abruptness, front topping, front bottoming, head toss and rear aftershake.
Technical Paper

Development of Pneumatic Suspension Type Full Air for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions. For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.
Technical Paper

Development of Full Air Pneumatic Suspension Type for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and its applications have becoming increasingly relevant for commercial vehicles to provide dynamic ride comfort to driver and reduce the load impact onto driver and or cargo. This paper shows the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles and its dynamic influence. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension´s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladed. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Steering Column/Instrument Panel NVH Analysis in Full Size Pickup Trucks Using MSC/NASTRAN - Part 1

Recent surveys of customer satisfaction with full size pickup trucks have raised the standards for passenger comfort and refinement of such vehicles. Customers for this type of vehicle demand performance levels for attributes such as NVH, ride, and handling that previously belonged to luxury passenger cars. Along with the increased passenger comfort, full size pickup trucks must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation trucks. The challenge is to design for NVH performance that can match and surpass many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. One aspect of “good” NVH is a steering wheel which is free from vibration. As part of the development of a new design for a full sized pick up truck, an NVH subjective rating of 8-9 (10 is maximum) was targeted for the design of steering column/ instrument panel assembly.
Technical Paper

A Systems Engineering Approach to Engine Cooling Design

This paper is divided into two parts: Part 1 - Systems engineering fundamentals Part 2 - Engine cooling design from a systems engineering perspective In Part 1, we explain how the task of designing a complex system can be made easier by the application of Systems Engineering principles. (This part is self contained and may be of general interest to those who have no special interest in engine cooling). Systems Engineering provides three key benefits: It facilitates communication: Requirements define the problem, they allow team members to see their own work in context Key information is standardized and made easier to visualize and verify. An “audit trail” is maintained ensuring that important information is documented, and human memory is no longer relied on for important decisions. Translates requirements into design.
Technical Paper

Multi–Branch Torsional Vibration in Geared Rotating Systems

Torsional vibration usually causes noticeable sound disturbances, mechanical shakings, and component fatigue problems. It exists at one or more periods of the operating range in torsional systems. Determination of critical speeds or torsional natural frequencies in a design stage makes it possible to avoid early fractures and costly repairs of the machinery. In this paper, the method for predicting speed–related excitation frequencies of complex rotating systems is discussed and the computer program is developed and tested by actual examples. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of multi–branch torsional vibration systems with one or more junction points are calculated. A user–friendly graphic interface for modeling is presented. Some practical examples are given and the results of the simulations are compared to those obtained analytically as well as those given in references.
Technical Paper

Development of a Commercial Truck Parabolic Leaf Spring Using CAE Simulation with Correlated Experimental Stress Analysis Results

The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Controller: Trailer Tow Use Case

Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
Journal Article

Purge Modeling for New Propulsion System Technology Applications

This paper presents a purge system model developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Assessment of purge capability is critical to HEV vehicles due to frequent engine off operation which limits carbon canister purging. The purge model is comprised of subsystems representing purge control strategy, carbon canister and engine plant. The paper is focused on modeling of the engine purge control feature. The purge model validation and purge capability predictions for an example HEV vehicle are presented and discussed.
Journal Article

Legibility: Back to the Basics

The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
Journal Article

Cruise Controller with Fuel Optimization Based on Adaptive Nonlinear Predictive Control

Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate an Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equiped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. The authors reported simulations and application of linear and nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.