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Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Rigid Body Modes of Engine Mounting System Due to Mount Rates Variability

While the engine mount rates need to be optimized to achieve the required frequency alignment and modal decoupling for quality performance, the robustness of the system needs to be studied as well. If a system exhibits acceptable modal characteristics with nominal optimized rates, the sensitivity of the system to variation of the rates from their nominal values affects the robustness of the system. Different factors can cause variation of the rates. Among them are rate changes from part to part arising from manufacturing process. In this paper the effect of mount rates variability on the modal characteristics is discussed. Monte Carlo simulation is used to predict how the rigid body modes and their couplings vary when the rate for each mount changes according to its statistical parameters. Through different examples the statistical variability of the modes to the rates variability is presented.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

Development of Pneumatic Suspension Type Full Air for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions. For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.
Technical Paper

Development of Full Air Pneumatic Suspension Type for Commercial Vehicles

The air suspension development and its applications have becoming increasingly relevant for commercial vehicles to provide dynamic ride comfort to driver and reduce the load impact onto driver and or cargo. This paper shows the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles and its dynamic influence. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension´s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladed. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Multi–Branch Torsional Vibration in Geared Rotating Systems

Torsional vibration usually causes noticeable sound disturbances, mechanical shakings, and component fatigue problems. It exists at one or more periods of the operating range in torsional systems. Determination of critical speeds or torsional natural frequencies in a design stage makes it possible to avoid early fractures and costly repairs of the machinery. In this paper, the method for predicting speed–related excitation frequencies of complex rotating systems is discussed and the computer program is developed and tested by actual examples. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of multi–branch torsional vibration systems with one or more junction points are calculated. A user–friendly graphic interface for modeling is presented. Some practical examples are given and the results of the simulations are compared to those obtained analytically as well as those given in references.
Technical Paper

Development of a Commercial Truck Parabolic Leaf Spring Using CAE Simulation with Correlated Experimental Stress Analysis Results

The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Controller: Trailer Tow Use Case

Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
Journal Article

Purge Modeling for New Propulsion System Technology Applications

This paper presents a purge system model developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Assessment of purge capability is critical to HEV vehicles due to frequent engine off operation which limits carbon canister purging. The purge model is comprised of subsystems representing purge control strategy, carbon canister and engine plant. The paper is focused on modeling of the engine purge control feature. The purge model validation and purge capability predictions for an example HEV vehicle are presented and discussed.
Journal Article

Legibility: Back to the Basics

The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
Journal Article

Cruise Controller with Fuel Optimization Based on Adaptive Nonlinear Predictive Control

Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate an Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equiped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. The authors reported simulations and application of linear and nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Stabilizer Bar Attachment Non-linear Fatigue Analysis

The stabilizer bar attachments problem can not be simply analyzed by using linear FEA methodology. The large deformation in the bushing, the elastic-plastic material property in the bushing retainer bracket, and the contact between different parts all add complexity to the problem and result in the need for an analysis method using a non-linear code, such as ABAQUS. The material properties of the bushing were experimentally determined and applied to the CAE model. It was found that using strains to estimate the fatigue life was more accurate and reliable than using stress. Many modeling techniques used in this analysis were able to improve analysis efficiency.
Technical Paper

Model Analysis of a Diesel Engine Cylinder Block using HEXA8 Finite Elements - Analysis and Experiment

Analytical and experimental investigations of a diesel engine cylinder block are performed. An attempt is made to reduce modeling and analysis costs in the design process of an engine. Traditionally, the engine has been modeled using either 8-node or 20-node solid elements for stress and thermal analyses and modeled using 4-node plate and shell elements for the dynamic analysis. In this paper, a simpler finite element modeling technique using only 8 node solid elements for both dynamic and static analyses is presented. Based on this integrated modeling technique of finite elements, eigenvalues are calculated and compared with the experimental data obtained from modal testing of an actual engine cylinder block.
Technical Paper

Hydroformed Tube Modeling in Crash FEA Model

Hydroformed truck frame side rails from circular tubes are studied for gage variations and pre-strain to be used in crash FEA modeling practice. This study provides simplified models that achieve feasible correlation with actual tests. Meanwhile, from plasticity theory we derive a forming equation in conjunction with forming limit diagrams to estimate material properties for hydroformed rails.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the New Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel

Ford's continued effort to improve fuel economy in automotive applications has emphasized the need for lightweight components that retain all the toughness associated with Ford truck vehicle characteristics. The application of an impact extrusion process to wheel design and manufacture, for Ford Aerostar, provides strength, performance and style more efficiently than other traditional processes. It results in a valuable 33% weight saving over comparable HSLA steel wheels, and provides the customer with uncompromised value. The Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel was designed to be of one-piece construction, manufactured from a less than 1″ thick aluminum wafer-shaped blank. The process permits manufacture in half the steps of a conventional stamped steel wheel, and eliminates extensive machining required with forged or cast aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Mass Optimization of a Front Floor Reinforcement

Optimization of heavy materials like steel, in order to create a lighter vehicle, it is a major goal among most automakers, since heavy vehicles simply cannot compete with a lightweight model's fuel economy. Thinking this way, this paper shows a case study where the Size Optimization technique is applied to a front floor reinforcement. The reinforcement is used by two different vehicles, a subcompact and a crossover Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), increasing the problem complexity. The Size Optimization technique is supported by Finite Element Method (FEM) tools. FEM in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is a numerical method for solving engineering problems, and its use can help to optimize prototype utilization and physical testing.
Technical Paper

The GTU – A New Realistic Generic Pickup Truck and SUV Model

Traditionally, ground vehicle aerodynamics has been researched with highly simplified models such as the Ahmed body and the SAE model. These models established and advanced the fundamental understanding of bluff body aerodynamics and have generated a large body of published data, however, their application to the development of passenger vehicles is limited by the highly idealized nature of their geometries. To date, limited data has been openly published on aerodynamic investigations of production vehicles, most likely due to the proprietary nature of production vehicle geometry. In 2012, Heft et al. introduced the realistic generic car model ‘DrivAer’ that better represents the flow physics associated with a typical production vehicle.
Technical Paper

Chassis Lightweighting Hole Placement with Weldline Evaluation

Vehicle weight driven design comes amid rising higher fuel efficiency standard, and must meet the criteria - pass Proving ground test events that is equivalent customer usage. CAE Fatigue analysis for proving ground (CFP) is behind a success push to digitally simulate vehicle durability performance in high fidelity. The need for vehicle weight reduction often arises late in vehicle development phases when CAE Methods, time, and tangible cost effective opportunities are limited or non-existent. It is necessary to deploy a new CAE Method to identify opportunities for light-weighting hole placement in Chassis structures to deliver a cost effective light-weighting opportunity with no impact on fatigue life. The successful application of this methodology is on truck frame, which is key structural parts for vehicle chassis to support body and suspension and powertrain.