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Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Natural Gas Vehicle Catalytic Converters

1993-11-01
933036
Bench reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of operating temperature, precious metal loading, space velocity, and air-fuel (A/F) ratio on the performance of palladium (Pd) catalysts under simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust conditions. The performance of these catalysts under simulated gasoline vehicle (GV) conditions was also investigated. In the case of simulated NGV exhaust, where methane was used as the prototypical hydrocarbon (HC) species, peak three-way conversion was obtained under richer conditions than required with simulated GV exhaust (propane and propene HC species). Moreover, the hydrocarbon efficiency of the catalyst under simulated NGV exhaust conditions was more sensitive to both A/F ratio and perturbations in A/F ratio than the HC efficiency under GV exhaust conditions.
Technical Paper

Implementation of ABS System on an Existing Heavy Trucks Line-up in Accordance to Brazilian Resolution No. 312/09 (CONTRAN)

2012-10-02
2012-36-0466
The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle's current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle's stability and improve its safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market.
Technical Paper

Commercial Van Diesel Idle Sound Quality

1997-05-20
971980
The customer's perception of diesel sounds is receiving more attention since diesel engines are being used more frequently in recent years. This paper summarizes the results of a study investigating the sound quality of diesel idle sounds in eight vans and light trucks. Subjective evaluations were conducted both in the US and the UK so that a comparison could be made. Paired comparison of annoyance and semantic differential subjective evaluation techniques were used. Correlation analysis was applied to the subjective evaluation results to determine annoying characteristics. Subjective results indicated that most annoyance rankings were similar for both the US and UK participants, with some specific differences. Correlation of objective measures to annoyance indicated a high correlation to ISO 532B loudness, dBA and kurtosis in the 1.4 kHz to 4 kHz range (aimed at quantifying the impulsiveness perception).
Technical Paper

Frame Beaming, Fifth Wheel Location — Special Body Mounting and Loading Problems

1965-02-01
650179
Discussion of four factors pertinent to any overall ride evaluation. These factors are frame beaming, fifth wheel location, special body mountings, and variable loading conditions on tandem truck and tractor ride. The methodology for measuring the characteristics of these factors is reviewed and practical solutions for improved ride are given.
Technical Paper

New Ford Midrange Diesel Trucks

1969-02-01
690119
When Ford decided to offer a midrange diesel engine family in medium trucks, it was recognized that the power-train had to be considered as a complete system in order to assure optimum compatibility. This paper describes how program objectives were established and the necessary validation programs for the truck, engine, and the chassis were conducted.
Technical Paper

An Objective Approach to Highway Truck Frame Design

1966-02-01
660162
The design requirements for the frame as a load carrying member are discussed in relationship to a highway truck and its basic vehicle package. The theoretical and experimental procedures are given in detail to demonstrate the techniques for frame design. The features of a method to laboratory test a frame with correlation to service miles is discussed.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-04-01
931104
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

Ford's SULEV Dedicated Natural Gas Trucks

1997-05-01
971662
Ford Motor Company has introduced its dedicated Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) trucks as mid-year 1997 offerings to complement its dedicated Crown Victoria and bi-fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) product line-up. The 5.4L F-250 full-size pick-up truck and the 5.4L E-250/E-350 full-size vans are production vehicles maintaining Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) quality and warranty while complying with all applicable corporate, federal and state requirements. Both trucks are the first OEM vehicles to certify at the Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) California medium-duty vehicle standard, the Federal Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard, and the Federal Inherently Low Emission Vehicle (ILEV) emission standard. The use of natural gas (NG) as a vehicle fuel required unique hardware changes in the areas of fuel storage, fuel metering, and the emission control system.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of Pickup Trucks Using Non-Linear FEA

1996-10-01
962223
One of the difficulties in predicting the structural behavior of vehicles such as the full size pickup trucks is the non-linearities involved during the course of the durability events. The current practice in durability and fatigue life prediction of vehicles is to conduct fatigue analysis on the structure using the measured road loads and estimate the fatigue incurred using the in-house and commercially available programs. In this paper the authors attempt to seek a different solution to the durability problem by conducting an upfront non-linear analysis. The results are then compared with the prediction by the fatigue life program in addition to the durability test results obtained on the early prototypes. To conduct the non-linear analysis ABAQUS FEA program is chosen for this investigation and for the linear analysis MSC/NASTRAN is utilized. Subsequently in-house fatigue program is used to predict the fatigue incurred.
Technical Paper

New Methodology to Improve the Engine Oil Level Indication in Commercial Trucks Assembly at End of Production Line

2011-10-04
2011-36-0164
This article is a new methodology to create a strong and reliable procedure to measure oil level at dealers. Most of time, commercial trucks run full loaded. Engine oil level indication systems are designed to measure oil level at that condition. However commercial trucks are assembled and sold empty and without bodies for trucks. In result of this condition, vehicles with a false indication of low engine oil level are detected at dealers' pre-delivery inspection, resulting in oil addition. This oil addition causes unnecessary costs, since vehicles are produced with maximum oil level. The methodology presented in this study analyzes and treats all variables involved in engine oil level measurements from engine production line until dealers' pre-delivery inspection
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

The New Ford Aeromax and Louisville Heavy Trucks: A Case Study in Applying Polar Plot Techniques to Vehicle Design

1995-11-01
952658
One of the major goals in the design of the new Ford Aeromax and Louisville heavy truck product line was to achieve competitive leadership in visibility. Market research found that visibility was an important issue to the heavy truck driver. Visibility is defined as both direct and indirect (i.e., the driver's ability to see with and without the use of supplemental vision devices such as mirrors) and both interior and exterior. The scope of this paper includes the work which was accomplished in evaluating direct and indirect exterior visibility and the resulting vehicle design which achieved Ford's leadership goals. Poor weather visibility and interior vision are beyond the scope of this paper. Polar Plots were the method of choice in the Aeromax/Louisville visibility studies. Industry acceptance of these techniques has been established in the recent approval of SAE J1750, “Evaluating the Truck Driver's Viewing Environment”.
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