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Technical Paper

Finite Element Approach to Modeling the Dynamics Response of Rubber-Belted Tractor

This research project investigates the feasibility of using a commercial finite element code to capture the dynamic response of a typical rubber-belted tractor for agricultural applications. The investigation focused on one of Caterpillar Inc.'s Ag Challenger Series tractors. A feasibility study concluded that Abaqus/Explicit [1], a finite element code utilizing the explicit scheme, had the desirable features needed to develop such a large-scale tractor model. These features include an efficient time integration scheme, three-dimensional generalized multiple contacts, and nonlinear material characterization. The fully-assembled tractor model was successful in simulating the forward motion. A preliminary validation indicated that the tractor model was able to predict a trend which was observed in field tests accurately.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping of Control Strategies for Embedded Systems

As both the number and complexity of electronic control system applications on earthmoving equipment and on-highway trucks increase, so does the effort associated with developing and maintaining control strategies implemented in embedded systems. A new tool was recently introduced by Sigma Technology of Ann Arbor, Michigan, that provides the capability to perform rapid prototyping of production embedded systems. The rapid prototyping process includes system modeling, control algorithm synthesis, simulation analysis, source code generation and vehicle implementation. The results of incorporating this tool in the control system design process include improved control performance, improved system reliability/robustness, and significantly reduced development/maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

Flexible Body Dynamic Simulation of a Large Mining Truck

A three dimensional mathematical model of a Caterpillar mining truck has been developed to simulate transient structural deformation and suspension response of a large mining truck traversing a known rough terrain course. The model incorporates compliant (finite element) representations of the truck frame, dump body, and rear axle housing into a dynamic mechanical system simulation model. Model results - frame acceleration, axle housing elastic deformation, and suspension response (strut pressures and displacements) are correlated with measured data from an instrumented truck traversing the steel speed bump portion of the rough terrain course. Results demonstrate that complex truck behavior can be simulated by combining finite element and mechanical system simulations.
Technical Paper

A CFD Study of Squeeze Film

In a new generation of unit injector (HEUI-Hydraulically Actuated and Electronically Controlled), a thin gap of oil film exists between the armature and solenoid. At low temperatures, high pressure slows the poppet causing poor injector performance. A CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) study with moving boundaries/meshes was undertaken to evaluate squeeze film behavior and determine optimum venting arrangement for improved injector performance.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Quenching Process at Caterpillar

Caterpillar uses heat treatment to enhance the properties of a significant number of parts. Traditional heat treat process optimization is both time consuming and expensive when done by empirical methods. This paper describes a computer simulation of the heat treatment process, developed by Caterpillar, based upon finite element analysis. This approach combines thermal, microstructural, and stress analysis to accurately model material transformation during quenching. Examples are presented to illustrate the program.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronic Underspeed Draft Control

A microprocessor based, underspeed draft control has been developed and introduced for use on belted agricultural tractors. This system does not rely on costly, strain sensitive pins for operation. By utilizing engine acceleration and deceleration rates, this system is able to respond quickly to needed changes in implement depth, while remaining stable under all operating conditions. The development process relied heavily on real-time computer simulation, minimizing the amount of actual field operation and substantially reducing the development time and expense.
Technical Paper

Payload Measurement System on Off-Highway Trucks for Mine Applications

The need to accurately measure and record the payload of large off-highway mining trucks was identified by The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. (BHP). In response. Caterpillar designed and developed a system to fufill that need. The payload carried by mine haul trucks has a strong influence on production rates and costs. The system developed should enable payloads to be much better controlled than has been previously possible. The system also provides a number of mine management features. The development of the system is described from the concept stage to the production stage. Final production capabilities of the microprocessor based system are described. Payload measurement capabilities, diagnostic capabilities, data storage, and data extraction methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

A New Validation of Spray Penetration Models for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Injectors

The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353μm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hydraulic System for the Caterpillar 416 Backhoe Loader

A key ingredient in the development of the Caterpillar 416 backhoe loader was the development of the hydraulic system. A load sensing, pressure compensated system was selected on the basis of its best being able to meet design goals. The result is a backhoe loader in which the hydraulic system contributes greatly to the vehicle's overall acceptance by operating efficiently and utilizing low lever efforts for ease of control.
Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Field Testing of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine and Aftertreatement Durability, Performance, and Maintenance in an On-Highway Application

This paper features an application study on the impact of different blend levels of commercially-supplied biodiesel on engine and aftertreatment systems' durability and reliability as well as the impact on owning and operating factors: service intervals and fuel economy. The study was conducted on a bus application with a 2007 on highway emissions equipped engine running biodiesel blends of B5, B20, and B99 for a total period approaching 4500 hours. Biodiesel of waste cooking grease feedstock was used for the majority of the testing, including B5 and B20 blends. Biodiesel of soybean feedstock was used for testing on B99 blend. No negative impacts on engine and aftertreatment performance and durability or indication of future potential issues were found when using B5 and B20. For B99 measurable impacts on engine and aftertreatment performance and owning and operating cost were observed.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Nanophase Gold Catalysts for Emissions Control

Various gold catalysts were prepared using commercial and in-house fabricated advanced catalyst supports that included mesoporous silica, mesoporous alumina, sol-gel alumina, and transition metal oxides. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on the supports by co-precipitation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange and surface functionalization techniques. The average gold particle size was ∼20nm or less. The oxidation activity of the prepared catalysts was studied using carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene and propane) in presence of water and CO2 and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Obtaining Structure-Borne Input Power for a SEA Model of an Earthmoving Machine Cab

Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mounting Structure Stiffness on Mounting System Isolation Performance on Off-Highway Machines

Off-highway machine mounting system isolation, especially the cab mounting system, significantly affects the operator comfort by providing damping to the harsh inputs and isolating the structure-borne energy from traveling into the cab. Mounting system isolation performance is decided not only by the isolation component, but also the mounting bracket structure, and should be treated as a system. This paper gives a review of how the mounting system isolates structural energy and the effect of the bracket structure stiffness to the mounting system isolation performance.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.