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Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Detailed Chemistry and Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction

Diesel combustion is a very complex process, involving a reacting, turbulent and multi-phase flow. Furthermore, heavy duty engines operate mainly at medium and high loads, where injection durations are very long and cylinder pressure is high. Within such context, proper CFD tools are necessary to predict mixing controlled combustion, heat transfer and, eventually, flame wall interaction which might result from long injection durations and high injection pressures. In particular, detailed chemistry seems to be necessary to estimate correctly ignition under a wide range of operating conditions and formation of rich combustion products which might lead to soot formation. This work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict combustion in heavy-duty diesel engines using detailed chemistry.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Liquid and Spray Penetration under Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Conditions

The modeling of fuel sprays under well-characterized conditions relevant for heavy-duty Diesel engine applications, allows for detailed analyses of individual phenomena aimed at improving emission formation and fuel consumption. However, the complexity of a reacting fuel spray under heavy-duty conditions currently prohibits direct simulation. Using a systematic approach, we extrapolate available spray models to the desired conditions without inclusion of chemical reactions. For validation, experimental techniques are utilized to characterize inert sprays of n-dodecane in a high-pressure, high-temperature (900 K) constant volume vessel with full optical access. The liquid fuel spray is studied using high-speed diffused back-illumination for conditions with different densities (22.8 and 40 kg/m3) and injection pressures (150, 80 and 160 MPa), using a 0.205-mm orifice diameter nozzle.