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Technical Paper

Pressure Amplitude Influence on Pulsating Exhaust Flow Energy Utilization

A turbocharged Diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow.
Technical Paper

Agglomeration and Nucleation of Non-Volatile Particles in a Particle Grouping Exhaust Pipe of a Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The possibility of non-volatile particle agglomeration in engine exhaust was experimentally examined in a Euro VI heavy duty engine using a variable cross section agglomeration pipe, insulated and double walled for minimal thermophoresis. The agglomeration pipe was located between the turbocharger and the exhaust treatment devices. Sampling was made across the pipe and along the centre-line of the agglomeration pipe. The performance of the agglomeration pipe was compared with an equivalent insulated straight pipe. The non-volatile total particle number and size distribution were investigated. Particle number measurements were conducted according to the guidelines from the Particle Measurement Programme. The Engine was fuelled with commercially available low sulphur S10 diesel.
Journal Article

Design of a Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery Application on a Drivable Heavy Duty Vehicle

The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Blockage Effects on Heavy Trucks in Full Scale Test Conditions

The effect of blockage due to the presence of the wind tunnel walls has been known since the early days of wind tunnel testing. Today there are several blockage correction methods available for correcting the measured aerodynamic drag. Due to the shape of the test object, test conditions and wind tunnel dimensions the effect on the flow may be different for two cab variants. This will result in a difference in the drag delta between so-called open-road conditions and the wind tunnel. This makes it more difficult to evaluate the performance of two different test objects when they are both tested in a wind tunnel and simulated in CFD. A numerical study where two different cab shapes were compared in both open road condition, and in a digital wind tunnel environment was performed.
Journal Article

An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue

In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics of Timber Trucks - a Wind Tunnel Investigation

There is a need for reducing fuel consumption and thereby also reducing CO2 and other emissions in all areas of transportation and the forest industry is no exception. In the particular case of timber trucks special care have to be taken when designing such vehicles; they have to be sturdy and operate in harsh conditions and they are being driven empty half the time. It is well known that the aerodynamic resistance constitutes a significant part of the vehicles driving resistance and four areas in particular, front of vehicle, gap, side/underbody and rear of the vehicle contributes about one quarter each. In order to address these issues a wind tunnel investigation was initiated where a 1:6 scale model of a timber truck was designed to operate in a 3.6 m wind tunnel. The present model resembles a generic timber truck with a flexible design such that different configurations could be tested easily.