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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Determining Continuous Particulate Matter from Transient Testing of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3575
The historical lack of continuous data for PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines hampers advanced inventory approaches and hampers second-by-second engine control optimization. Continuos PM data can be obtained using a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), but moisture correction of data is needed to remove unwanted transient components of the mass. Reasonable correlation can be found between TEOM data integrated over the cycle and conventional PM filter data. Considerable scatter was evident when continuous TEOM data were plotted against instantaneous power, but by dispersing the power in time a clearer relationship was evident. Continuous TEOM data showed the same gross trends as PM filter mass distributed over a cycle in proportion to instantaneous CO, but it was evident that this CO proportioning technique is at best approximate. Binning of PM mass rate as a function of vehicle speed and acceleration were also evaluated for inventory purposes.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Instantaneous and Measured Emissions in Heavy Duty Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3536
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Correlation Study Using Linear Regression of PM and NOX for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-1618
When heavy-duty truck emissions rates are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), average speed and the degree of transient behavior of the vehicle activity can affect the emissions rate. Previous one-dimensional studies have shown some correlation of distance-specific emissions rates between cycles. This paper reviews emissions data sets from the 5-mode CARB Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Schedule, the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and an inspection and maintenance cycle, known as the AC5080. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full-scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 56,000 lbs. Two-dimensional correlations were used to predict the emissions rate on one mode or cycle from the rates of two other modes or cycles.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Respirable Particulate Genotoxicant Distribution in Diesel Exhaust and Mine Atmospheres

1992-09-01
921752
Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions: Review and Recent Data

1997-11-17
973203
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
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