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Air Conditioning Service Procedures for Heavy duty and Off-Highway work Machines using R-134a refrigerant

This recommended practice provides technicians with safe and efficient techniques and general equipment recommendations for servicing Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) systems in heavy duty and off-highway work machines. Presently, R-134a is the only approved refrigerant for use in mobile heavy duty and off-highway equipment and therefore this document primarily covers the servicing of R-134a systems. Since the technician may encounter other refrigerants a brief explanation on the identification safe handling of each refrigerant will be introduced.

Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines Operator enclosure environment Part 4:Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) test method and performance

J3078/4 specifies a uniform test method for measuring the contribution to operator environmental temperature provided by a heating, ventilating and air conditioning system operating in a specific ambient environment. The method might not determine the complete climatic environment of the operator since this is also affected by heat load from sources other than those on the machine, for example solar heating. J3708/6 is to be used in conjunction with J3078/4 to determine more accurately the complete heat loading on the operator enclosure. Minimum performance levels for the machine’s operator enclosure heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems are established in J3708/4.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Medical Devices and Equipment

The Medical Devices and Equipment subscription provides an extensive collection of SAE standards, technical papers, and briefs relating to the materials and processes used in the design and testing of medical devices and equipment. The more than 170 standards and 160 technical papers in this subscription focus primarily on the specialized metals and alloys needed in the competitive medical marketplace, while the 100+ articles from well-respected industry publication Medical Design Briefs give a broader overview of market issues. Sample documents in this subscription include: Automatic Shot Peening Heat Treatment of Low Alloy Steel Parts Titanium and Titanium Alloy Tubing Tolerances Corrosion Resistant Steel Wire Titanium Suspension Springs Understanding Material Properties Splitting Hairs: Measuring Thin Medical Wire

Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil in Presence of Crushed Seashell as a Support for Solid Heterogeneous Catalyst

Developing relatively cheap and widely available resources for heterogeneous solid catalyst synthesis is a promising approach for biodiesel fuel industry. Seashell which is essentially calcium carbonate can be used as a basic support for transesterification heterogeneous catalysts. In the present investigation, the alcoholysis of waste frying oil has been carried out using seashell-supported K3 PO4 as solid catalyst. Presenter Essam Oun Al-Zaini, PhD student, UNSW

Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception

Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. Presenter Peter Nordin, Link�ping University

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. Presenter Chinmaya Patil, Eaton Corporation

Hydraulic Hybrid Powertrain-In-the-Loop Integration for Analyzing Real-World Fuel Economy and Emissions Improvements

The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. Presenter Fernando Tavares, Univ. of Michigan

Practical Process for Determining Explainable, Rational Distortion Levels Providing Adequate IPP

Translating service information into multiple human natural languages is a major expense for multinational corporations. Indeed corporations spend significant amounts to reduce their translation expense by managing the reuse text and its translation. The new frontier in reducing translation expense is translation avoidance, eliminating text through using illustrations and animations to communicate. Presenter Arnold Taube

Determining Customer Support Requirements for Low Voltage Electric Drives

Low Voltage Electric Drives are becoming very attractive for various applications in the Turf, Construction and Agricultural products being engineered today. Determining what the Customer Support Requirements are for Maintenance and Repair for the Life Cycle of the products is critical to the initial design process. Presenter Russell Christ

Hybrid Panel - Hybrid Service Issues

Hybrid vehicles are rapidly entering the commercial and consumer marketplaces. However, hybrids introduce safety and service issues many Owners and Service Technicians are not familiar with. Components and systems may be so new existing standards need to be located or new standards developed. Technicians may need to learn new skills, acquire new tools and their service bays modified. Learn as solutions and problems are shared involving servicing hybrid vehicles. Organizer Mark N. Pope,General Motors LLC Arnold Taube,John Deere Company Moderator Mark N. Pope,General Motors Company Panelist Russell George Christ,Deere & Company Mark Quarto,General Motors Company Arnold Taube,DEERE AND CO Organizer Mark N. Pope, General Motors LLC Arnold Taube, John Deere Company Moderator Mark N. Pope, General Motors Company Panelist Russell George Christ, Deere & Company Mark Quarto, General Motors Company Arnold Taube, DEERE AND CO
Technical Paper


Railroads are facing a crisis in operating costs, the urge toward reduction of unnecessary weight has become widespread and the crusade for noise abatement is no longer to be denied, according to the author. The pneumatic-tired railroad-coach not only answers these requirements, he says, but anticipates a demand for a new traveling comfort. The desire to rubberize railroad equipment is old but much fruitless research has resulted from directing it chiefly toward solid-rubber or cushion tires. Road and rail surfaces present entirely different problems so far as the tire is concerned. No uniformity of conditions obtains on highways but rails are even and smooth. A badly aligned joint such as would wreck a metal wheel makes no impression on a pneumatic tire. As simple as the tire problem may seem, its solution represents years of courageous and skillful research on the part of the Michelin company in France.
Technical Paper


The author discusses the factors that must be considered in solving the transportation problems and then describes the operation of the English-railway cartage-system in some detail under the two main divisions of delivery and collection. An important feature of the system is that of the control afforded by locating a controller, or dispatcher, in a central office and holding him responsible for the movements of the carmen, or drivers. The details of this control are explained. The field for the motor truck in railway-terminal service is outlined and a presentation is made of the merits and demerits of unit containers, together with an illustrated description of the English “fiats,” or demountable bodies. Other subjects treated include cartage costs, tonnage hauled, unified control of cartage and expressions of opinion quoted from numerous English trade organizations.
Technical Paper

Mooring Masts and Landing Trucks for Airships

ATTAINMENT of the full potentialities of airships as carriers is dependent upon and will be greatly expedited by the solution of mooring and ground-handling problems. It is felt that the fundamental solutions have been found, and trials of newly designed equipment are virtually at hand. Communities that desire to erect mooring masts and provide servicing facilities are advised to await patiently the further trial of experimental equipment designed by the engineers stationed at the Naval Air Station at Lakehurst, N. J. This equipment is now under construction on contract. Evolution of the mooring mast, a British post-war device, and the present methods of mooring an airship to the mast are described to show the trend of development.
Technical Paper


The author first points out how increasing population and rising standards of living have increased the demand for foodstuffs and how such industrial activities as are brought about by the present conflict magnify the seriousness of the food problem, not only by withdrawing workers from the farms, but also by increasing food consumption on the part of those engaged in the speeded-up industries in order to supply the increased human energy required. The author then passes to a discussion of the tractor as a means for increasing the food supply by taking the place of withdrawn labor and cheapening production. Several charts show the effect of increased individual activity on food consumption, the relation of food consumption to standards of living and the growth of population, the variation of food demand during political activities during the past century, and the relation of the cost per calorie of various cereals.