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Technical Paper

Optimizing Occupant Restraint Systems for Tactical Vehicles in Frontal Crashes

The objective of this study was to optimize the occupant restraint systems for a light tactical vehicle in frontal crashes. A combination of sled testing and computational modeling were performed to find the optimal seatbelt and airbag designs for protecting occupants represented by three size of ATDs and two military gear configurations. This study started with 20 sled frontal crash tests to setup the baseline performance of existing seatbelts, which have been presented previously; followed by parametric computational simulations to find the best combinations of seatbelt and airbag designs for different sizes of ATDs and military gear configurations involving both driver and passengers. Then 12 sled tests were conducted with the simulation-recommended restraint designs. The test results were further used to validate the models. Another series of computational simulations and 4 sled tests were performed to fine-tune the optimal restraint design solutions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Design and Control Optimization of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

This paper investigates the fuel saving potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the Lithium-ion battery pack in the hybridized configuration. On the other hand, the powertrain supervisory control optimization finds the most efficient way to split power demands between the battery pack and the engine. Most of the previous literatures implement them separately. In contrast, combining the sizing and energy management problem into a single optimization problem produces the global optimal solution. This study proposes a novel unified framework to couple Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) to determine the battery pack sizing and the power split control sequence simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment

During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. The events selected were evaluated by Department of the Army personnel to confirm they were representative of the loading environment expected for the WIAMan. A military case review was conducted for all AIS 2+ fractures with supporting radiology. In Warfighters whose injuries were reviewed, 79% had a foot, ankle or leg AIS 2+ fracture. Distal tibia, distal fibula, and calcaneus fractures were the most prevalent.
Technical Paper

Human Foot-Ankle Injuries and Associated Risk Curves from Under Body Blast Loading Conditions

Under body blast (UBB) loading to military transport vehicles is known to cause foot-ankle fractures to occupants due to energy transfer from the vehicle floor to the feet of the soldier. The soldier posture, the proximity of the event with respect to the soldier, the personal protective equipment (PPE) and age/sex of the soldier are some variables that can influence injury severity and injury patterns. Recently conducted experiments to simulate the loading environment to the human foot/ankle in UBB events (~5ms rise time) with variables such as posture, age and PPE were used for the current study. The objective of this study was to determine statistically if these variables affected the primary injury predictors, and develop injury risk curves. Fifty below-knee post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) legs were used for statistical analysis. Injuries to specimens involved isolated and multiple fractures of varying severity.
Technical Paper

Experimental Stress/Strain Analysis of a Standardized Sensor Platform for a C-130 Aircraft

Project Oculus is an in-flight deployable mechanical arm/pod system that will accommodate 500 pounds of sensor payload, developed for a C-130 military aircraft. The system is designed for use in counter narco-terrorism and surveillance applications by the Department of Defense and the National Guard [1]. A prototype of the system has been built and is in the testing/analysis phase. The purpose of this study was to analyze the actual stresses and strains in the critical areas found using previous Finite Element (FE) simulations and to ensure that acceptable safety requirements have been met. The system components tested will be redesigned, tested, and reconstructed in the case of unacceptable safety factors or if more reliable methods can be implemented. The system was built to be deployed and retracted in flight, to avoid causing any problems in take off and landing.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Active & Passive Safety for Heavy Article Tilter and Positioner (HATP)

Mobile heavy article tilter and positioner (HATP) is special purpose vehicle designed to level, articulate and positioning of very heavy load within the accuracy of arc minutes and in a stipulated time in fully auto mode. HATP system uses sophisticated electronic controller system to carry out required task in auto mode. This electronic controller system comprises of various types of electronic hardware, software, sensors and actuators. As this system is dealing with heavy load, any failure in any of subsystem of HATP can result into catastrophe. Therefore active and passive safety measure at various levels must be incorporated into system which firstly prevents the failure and reduce the effect of failure. The safety system for HATP system has been divided in three major levels: 1. Access level safety 2. Operational safety 3. Preventive safety. All three levels of safety is incorporated at appropriate subsystem based on Risk Priority Number (RPN) and failure mode effect analysis.
Technical Paper

Multi-Layer Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterogeneous System-of-Systems Composed of Manned and Unmanned Vehicles

The advancement of both sensory and unmanned technology, combined with increased utilization of autonomous platforms in complex teaming scenarios, has created a need for practical design space exploration tools to aid in the synthesis of effective System-of-Systems (SoS). The presented work describes a modular, flexible, and extensible framework, referred to herein as the Technologies and Teaming Evaluation (TATE) framework, for straightforward identification of high-quality SoS, which may include both manned and autonomous elements, through quantitative evaluation of system-level and SoS-level attributes against a set of user-defined reference tasks.
Technical Paper

Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin Oblique Vertical Testing

Abstract - The Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) was developed to assess injury in Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFTE) and laboratory development tests of vehicles and vehicle technologies subjected to underbody blast (UBB) loading. While UBB events impart primarily vertical loading, the occupant location in the vehicle relative to the blast can result in some inherent non-vertical, or off-axis loading. In this study, the WIAMan Technology Demonstrator (TD) was subjected to 18 tests with a 350g, 5-ms time duration drop tower pulse using an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) energy attenuating seat in four conditions: purely vertical, 15° forward tilt, 15° rearward tilt, and 15° lateral tilt to simulate the partly off-axis loading of an UBB event. The WIAMan TD showed no signs of damage upon inspection. Time history data indicates the magnitude, curve shape, and timing of the response data were sensitive to the off-axis loading in the lower extremity, pelvis, and spine.