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Technical Paper

Exhaust Valve Seat Leakage

1997-05-01
971638
A 1.9L four cylinder engine was evaluated for leakage of cylinder charge through the exhaust valve seats. Fast FID HC analyzer traces reveal leakage. Static leakdown tests do not correlate with the Fast FID measurement, unlike previously published reports for a different engine. The causes of exhaust valve seat leakage are likely to be Flakes of cylinder deposits lodging in the valve seat Valve seat distortion due to the thermal and pressure loading of the cylinder head structure Because deposit related effects are very history dependent, it is very difficult to obtain quantitative results. Some experimental observations: Static pressure leakage measurements show variation of leakage area with cylinder pressure, caused by flexing of the valve head. Dynamic leakage results are history dependent. Leakage is reduced after running at high speed/load, and gradually build up during extended light load low speed operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling HCCI Combustion With High Levels of Residual Gas Fraction - A Comparison of Two VVA Strategies

2003-10-27
2003-01-3220
Adjusting the Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) by means of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) is a strong candidate for controlling the ignition timing in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. However, at high levels of residual gas fraction, insufficient mixing can lead to the presence of considerable temperature and composition variations. This paper extends previous modeling efforts to include the effect of RGF distribution on the onset of ignition and the rate of combustion using a multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code (KIVA-3V) sequentially with a multi-zone code with detailed chemical kinetics. KIVA-3V is used to simulate the gas exchange processes, while the multi-zone code computes the combustion event. It is shown that under certain conditions the effect of composition stratification is significant and cannot be captured by a single-zone model or a multi-zone model using only temperature zones.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Modeling the Effects of Gas Exchange Processes on HCCI Combustion and Its Application in Evaluating Variable Valve Timing Control Strategies

2002-10-21
2002-01-2829
The present study introduces a modeling approach for investigating the effects of valve events and gas exchange processes in the framework of a full-cycle HCCI engine simulation. A multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code, KIVA-3V, is used to simulate exhaust, intake and compression up to a transition point, before which chemical reactions become important. The results are then used to initialize the zones of a multi-zone, thermo-kinetic code, which computes the combustion event and part of the expansion. After the description and the validation of the model against experimental data, the application of the method is illustrated in the context of variable valve actuation. It has been shown that early exhaust valve closing, accompanied by late intake valve opening, has the potential to provide effective control of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3054
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Valve Timing on Gasoline Engine Performance and Hydrocarbon Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-3058
Despite remarkable progress made over the past 30 years, automobiles continue to be a major source of hydrocarbon emissions. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether variable exhaust valve opening (EVO) and exhaust valve closing (EVC) can be used to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. An automotive gasoline engine was tested with different EVO and EVC timings under steady-state and start-up conditions. The first strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with standard EVC. Although exhaust gas temperature is increased and catalyst light-off time is reduced, the rapid drop in cylinder temperature increases cylinder-out hydrocarbons to such a degree that a net increase in hydrocarbon emissions results. The second strategy that was evaluated uses early EVO with early EVC. Early EVO reduces catalyst light-off time by increasing exhaust gas temperature and early EVC keeps the hydrocarbon-rich exhaust gas from the piston crevice from leaving the cylinder.
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