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Voltage Regulators for Automotive-Type Generators

This SAE Definition Document contains historic voltage regulation methods and test requirements that have not been previously published. The purpose of this document is to recommend a set of definitions and practices for use on current and future 12 V vehicle electric power regulation and control systems in internal combustion engine road vehicles. This document is not intended to include nor exclude regulators used in higher voltage vehicle electrical systems. The term “generator” rather than “alternator” will be used even though these terms may be used interchangeably in practice.


This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to apply to lamps, batteries, heaters, radios, and similar equipment for operation with mobile or automotive diesel engines. Twenty-four V systems have long been used for heavy-duty services because 24 V permit operating 12 V systems in series-parallel. Thirty-two V systems have been used for marine, railroad-car lighting, and other uses. Generators, storage batteries, starting motors, lighting, and auxiliary electrical equipment shall be for nominal system ratings of 12, 24, or 32 V as determined by the power requirements of the application. It is recommended that no intermediate voltages be considered. The combination of a 24 V starting motor and two 12 V batteries connected in series for cranking is considered practical where it can be adapted to the installation.

xEV Labels to Assist First and Second Responders, and Others

This recommended practice prescribes clear and consistent labeling methodology for communicating important xEV high voltage safety information. Examples of such information include identifying key high voltage system component locations and high voltage disabling points. These recommendations are based on current industry best practices identified by the responder community. Although this recommended practice is written for xEVs with high voltage systems, these recommendations can be applied to any vehicle type.

Integration of Battery Pack Systems in Bus Electrification

a) Creation of a standard specific to integration of energy storage systems into electrification of buses of all types which comprehends safety, performance, life and cost considerations utilizing worldwide standards as references in order to maximize existing work. The document applies to both purpose built electric buses and retrofit electrified buses. b) Harmonization of these existing standards achieve specific objectives that provide guidance in effective and safe designs of electrificed buses which utilize battery pack systems as the energy storage device. c) Future Considerations

Recommended Practice for Determining Material Properties of Li-Battery Cathode Active Materials

This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery cathode active material. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as these are usually established between the vendor and customer. It is not within the scope of this document to examine the rheological properties of the cathode material in slurry since such properties are influenced by the conductive additive and the solid loading, which are determined through discussion between the manufacturer and user. It is not within the scope of this document to examine the electrochemical properties of cathode materials since these are influenced by electrode design. The committee considers that it is impossible to establish an electrode design that would be appropriate for all cathode active materials.

Electric Vehicle (E-Vehicle) Crash Test Lab Safety Guidelines

The special risks associated with conducting crash tests on E-Vehicles can be divided into two main categories; 1) thermal activity inside the battery (resulting from electrical or mechanical abuse) may lead to energetic emission of harmful and/or flammable gases, thermal runaway, and potentially fire, and 2) the risk of electrocution. Procedures to ensure protection from all types of risk must be integrated into the entire crash test process. This informational report is intended to provide guidance in this endeavor using current best practices at the time of this publication. As both battery technology and battery management system technology is in a phase of expansion, the contents of this report must then be gaged against current technology of the time, and updated periodically to retain its applicability and usefulness.

Selection of Transmission Media

This SAE Information Report studies the present transmission media axioms and takes a fresh look at the Class C transmission medium requirements and also the possibilities and limitations of using a twisted pair as the transmission medium. The choice of transmission medium is a large determining factor in choosing a Class C scheme.

Self Propelled Sweepers and Scrubbers Battery Run-Time

This SAE standard applies to all electric battery-powered machines that fall within the scope of SAE J2130. Purpose To define a uniform method of determining the time a battery-powered machine will continue operating normally with a given set of batteries.