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Technical Paper

Literature Survey of Water Injection Benefits on Boosted Spark Ignited Engines

The automotive industry has been witnessing a major shift towards downsized boosted direct injection engines due to diminishing petroleum reserves and increasingly stringent emission targets. Boosted engines operate at a high mean effective pressure (MEP), resulting in higher in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, effectively leading to increased possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. Therefore, the compression ratio and boost pressure in modern engines are restricted, which in-turn limits the engine efficiency and power. To mitigate conditions where the engine is prone to knocking, the engine control system uses spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Several researchers have advocated water injection as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Regenerative Braking Model for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A regenerative braking model for a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is developed in this work. This model computes the line and pad pressures for the front and rear brakes, the amount of generator use depending on the state of deceleration (i.e. the brake pedal position), and includes a wheel lock-up avoidance algorithm. The regenerative braking model has been developed in the symbolic programming environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK/STATEFLOW for downloadability to an actual HEV's control system. The regenerative braking model has been incorporated in NREL's HEV system simulation called ADVISOR. Code modules that have been changed to implement the new regenerative model are described. Resulting outputs are compared to the baseline regenerative braking model in the parent code. The behavior of the HEV system (battery state of charge, overall fuel economy, and emissions characteristics) with the baseline and the proposed regenerative braking strategy are first compared.
Technical Paper

Design of an Advanced Heavy Tactical Truck: A Target Cascading Case Study

The target cascading methodology is applied to the conceptual design of an advanced heavy tactical truck. Two levels are defined: an integrated truck model is represented at the top (vehicle) level and four independent suspension arms are represented at the lower (system) level. Necessary analysis models are developed, and design problems are formulated and solved iteratively at both levels. Hence, vehicle design variables and system specifications are determined in a consistent manner. Two different target sets and two different propulsion systems are considered. Trade-offs between conflicting targets are identified. It is demonstrated that target cascading can be useful in avoiding costly design iterations late in the product development process.