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Journal Article

Simulation-based Assessment of Various Dual-Stage Boosting Systems in Terms of Performance and Fuel Economy Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1471
Diesel engines have been used in large vehicles, locomotives and ships as more efficient alternatives to the gasoline engines. They have also been used in small passenger vehicle applications, but have not been as popular as in other applications until recently. The two main factors that kept them from becoming the major contender in the small passenger vehicle applications were the low power outputs and the noise levels. A combination of improved mechanical technologies such as multiple injection, higher injection pressure, and advanced electronic control has mostly mitigated the problems associated with the noise level and changed the public notion of the Diesel engine technology in the latest generation of common-rail designs. The power output of the Diesel engines has also been improved substantially through the use of variable geometry turbines combined with the advanced fuel injection technology.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1068
This work studies the complex interactions resulting from the application and control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a production heavy-duty diesel engine system, and its effectiveness in reducing NOx emissions. The coupling between EGR, the Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) and the EGR cooler critically affects boost pressure, air/fuel ratio (A/F), combustion efficiency and pumping work. It is shown that EGR provides an effective means for reducing flame temperatures and NOx emissions, particularly under low A/F ratio conditions. However, engine thermal efficiency tends to decrease with EGR as a result of decreasing indicated work and increasing pumping work. Combustion deterioration is predominant at higher load, low speed and low boost conditions, due to a significant decrease of A/F ratio with increasing EGR.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Response TiAl Turbine Wheel on Engine Performance under Transient Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1881
Transient tests in a 2.0 liter in-line 4 cylinder downsizing gasoline direct injection engine were conducted under various transient conditions in order to investigate effects of lower rotational inertia of titanium aluminide alloy (TiAl) turbine wheel on engine and turbocharger performances. As a representative result, fast boost pressure build up was achieved in case of TiAl turbocharger compared to Inconel turbocharger. This result was mainly due to lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel. Engine torque build up response was also improved with TiAl turbocharger even though engine torque response gap between both turbochargers was slightly reduced due to retarded combustion phase. In addition, with advanced ignition timing, fuel consumption became less than that of Inconel turbocharger with similar engine torque response.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Turbocharger with TiAl Turbine Wheel in a Downsizing GDI Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2499
Steady and transient tests in a downsizing Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) in-line 4 cylinders 2.0 liter engine were carried out to investigate characteristics of turbocharger with Titanium aluminide (TiAl) turbine wheel. The density of TiAl material is lower than Inconel 718 (Inconel) which is raw material for conventional turbine wheel. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of light rotational inertia of turbine wheel on engine performance. Performance of TiAl turbine wheel turbocharger itself was also compared to that of Inconel turbine wheel turbocharger. Except for the turbine wheels, all experimental conditions were matched to be the same load and engine speed conditions. The compressor total-to-total pressure ratio of TiAl turbocharger was higher under part load condition due to higher turbocharger speed of TiAl turbocharger, which was led by lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel, while the engine performance was not much improved.
Technical Paper

Literature Survey of Water Injection Benefits on Boosted Spark Ignited Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0658
The automotive industry has been witnessing a major shift towards downsized boosted direct injection engines due to diminishing petroleum reserves and increasingly stringent emission targets. Boosted engines operate at a high mean effective pressure (MEP), resulting in higher in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, effectively leading to increased possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. Therefore, the compression ratio and boost pressure in modern engines are restricted, which in-turn limits the engine efficiency and power. To mitigate conditions where the engine is prone to knocking, the engine control system uses spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Several researchers have advocated water injection as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques.
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