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Technical Paper

Improvement of Engine Performance With Lean Mixture Ignited By Diesel Fuel Injection and Internal Egr

2000-06-12
2000-05-0076
The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. The internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the mixture temperature. The test engine was a 4-stroke, single- cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The cooling system was forced-air cooling and displacement volume was about 211 (cm3). The compression ratio was about 19.9:1. The experiment was made under constant engine speed of 3000 (r/min). The boost pressure was maintained at 101.3 (kPa). Five values of mass flow rate of diesel fuel injection were selected from 0.060 (g/s) to 0.167 (g/s) and five levels of back pressure: 0), 26.7, 53.3, 80.0 and 106.6 (kPa) were selected for the experiment. The effect of internal EGR is varied by the back pressure level.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of OH Radical Emission Behavior Using a 2-Cycle Engine

1997-10-27
978515
The aim of this research was to investigate the mechanism causing autoignition and the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion by detecting the behavior of the OH radical and other excited molecules present in the flame in a spark ignition engine. The test equipment used was a 2-cycle engine equipped with a Schnürle scavenging system. Using emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the OH radical was measured at four locations in the end zone of the combustion chamber. The OH radical plays an important role in the elemental reactions of hydrocarbon fuels. When a certain level of EGR was applied according to the engine operating conditions, the unburned gas became active owing to heat transfer from residual gas near the measurement positions on the exhaust port side and the influence of excited species in the residual gas, and autoignition tended to occur.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of HCCI and ATAC Combustion Characteristics Based on Experimentation and Simulations Influence of the Fuel Octane Number and Internal EGR on Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3732
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion processes can be broadly divided between a CAI process that is applied to four-stroke engines and a CAI process that is applied to two-stroke engines. The former process is generally referred to as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the later process as Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC). The region of stable engine operation differs greatly between these two processes, and it is thought that the elucidation of their differences and similarities could provide useful information for expanding the operation region of HCCI combustion. In this research, the same two-stroke engine was operated under both the ATAC and HCCI combustion processes to compare their respective combustion characteristics. The results indicated that the ignition timing was less likely to change in the ATAC process in relation to changes in the fuel octane number than it was in the HCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR-Induced Hot Residual Gas on Combustion when Operating a Two-Stroke Engine on Alcohol Fuels

2000-10-16
2000-01-2972
In this research, the effect of high-temperature residual gas, resulting from the application of a certain level of EGR, on combustion was investigated using a two-stroke engine and alcohol fuels (ethanol and methanol) and gasoline as the test fuels. Measurements were made of the light emission intensity of the OH radical on the intake and exhaust port sides of the combustion chamber and of the combustion chamber wall temperature (spark plug washer temperature) and the exhaust gas temperature. Data were measured and analyzed in a progression from normal combustion to autoignited combustion to preignition and to knocking operation.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Lean Methanol-Air Mixture Ignited by Diesel Fuel Injection Applied with Internal EGR

2000-06-19
2000-01-2012
The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the temperature of the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean methanol-air mixture of air-fuel ratio between 130 and 18 could be ignited and burned when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added. The ignition and combustion characteristics can be improved by the internal EGR, however the engine performance and NOx emission deteriorated.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Analysis of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-10-30
2007-32-0038
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers the advantages of high efficiency and low emissions of pollutants. However, ignition timing control and expansion of the stable operation region are issues remaining to be addressed in this combustion process. Detailed analyses of ignition and combustion characteristics are needed to resolve these issues. HCCI combustion of a low octane number fuel is characterized by two-stage heat release attributed to a cool flame and a hot flame, respectively. In this study, spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on ignition and combustion characteristics using a low octane number fuel, which is apt to give rise to a cool flame. The reaction mechanism of a cool flame produces formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements were made of spontaneous light emission and absorption at wavelengths corresponding to the light emitted at the time HCHO was produced.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

2015-11-17
2015-32-0770
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion in an HCCI Engine Using Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge Assist

2017-11-05
2017-32-0084
This study focused on a non-equilibrium plasma discharge as a means of assisting HCCI combustion.Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with a spark electrode in the top of the combustion chamber for continuously generating non-equilibrium plasma from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke. The results showed that applying non-equilibrium plasma to the HCCI test engine advanced the main combustion period that otherwise tended to be delayed as the engine speed was increased. In addition, it was found that the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and non-equilibrium plasma prevented a transition to partial combustion while suppressing cylinder pressure oscillations at high loads.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0085
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine with a High Compression Ratio

2006-11-13
2006-32-0043
In this study, it was shown that Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine, operating under the conditions of a high compression ratio, wide open throttle (WOT) and a lean mixture, could be simulated by raising the compression ratio of a 2-stroke engine. On that basis, a comparison was then made with the characteristics of Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC), the HCCI process that is usually accomplished in 2-stroke engines under the conditions of a low compression ratio, partial throttle and a large quantity of residual gas. One major difference observed between HCCI combustion and ATAC was their different degrees of susceptibility to the occurrence of cool flames, which was attributed to differences in the residual gas state. It was revealed that the ignition characteristics of these two combustion processes differed greatly in relation to the fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine Using an Optically Accessible Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0012
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Gas Emissions of Lean Mixture Ignited by Direct Diesel Fuel Injection with Internal EGR

1999-09-28
1999-01-3265
The uniform lean gasoline-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is add to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 40 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added, and the burning period is shorted by internal EGR. However, as the back pressure increases, NOx concentration is increased by the high temperature residual gas.
Journal Article

Effect of Streamer Discharge Assist on Combustion in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0013
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest in recent years as a clean, high-efficiency combustion system. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in HCCI engines because they lack a physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue of HCCI engines is their narrow operating range because of misfiring that occurs at low loads and abnormal combustion at high loads. As a possible solution to these issues, this study focused on the application of a streamer discharge in the form of non-equilibrium plasma as a technique for assisting HCCI combustion. Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with an ignition electrode in the combustion chamber. A streamer discharge was continuously generated in the cylinder during a 720-degree interval from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke.
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