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Technical Paper

Field Effectiveness Calculation of Integrated Safety Systems

The potential of determining the change of injury severity in the accident event taking passive as well as active measures into account at the vehicle (integral systems) are at present limited to pedestrian protective systems. Therefore, an extension of the existing methods for the application with common integral systems (front protection, side protection, etc.) is suggested. Nowadays the effectiveness of passive safety systems is determined in crash tests with very high accident severities. However, approximately 90% of real-world accidents have a lower accident severity as the required crash tests. Thus, this paper will present a method calculating the effectiveness of such an integral system based on real-world accident data. For these reasons, this paper is presenting a method for a more valid prediction of injury severity. The German In-Depth Database GIDAS allows clustering the accident event in relevant car-to-car scenarios.
Journal Article

Obtaining Diagnostic Coverage Metrics Using Rapid Prototyping of Multicore Systems

With the introduction of the ISO26262 automotive safety standard there is a burden of proof to show that the processing elements in embedded microcontroller hardware are capable of supporting a certain diagnostic coverage level, depending on the required Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). The current mechanisms used to provide actual metrics of the Built-in Self Tests (BIST) and Lock Step comparators use Register Transfer Level (RTL) simulations of the internal processing elements which force faults into individual nodes of the design and collect diagnostic coverage results. Although this mechanism is robust, it can only be performed by semiconductor suppliers and is costly. This paper describes a new solution whereby the microcontroller is synthesized into a large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a test controller on the outside.
Journal Article

Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
Technical Paper

Hardware Based Paravirtualization: Simplifying the Co-Hosting of Legacy Code for Mixed Criticality Applications

The increased pressure for power, space, and cost reduction in automotive applications together with the availability of high performance, automotive qualified multicore microcontrollers has lead to the ability to engineer Domain Controller ECUs that can host several separate applications in parallel. The standard automotive constraints however still apply, such as use of AUTOSAR operating system, support for legacy code, hosting OEM supplied code and the ability to determine warranty issues and responsibilities between a group of Tier 1 and Tier 2 vendors who all provide Intellectual Property to the final production ECU. Requirements for safety relevant applications add even more complexity, which in most current approaches demand a reconfiguration of all basic software layers and a major effort to redesign parts of the application code to enable co-existence on the same hardware platform. This paper outlines the conflicting requirements of hosting multiple applications.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Investigations of HVAC Systems in Vehicle

New power train concepts in the automobile industry will decisively change the familiar car acoustics. Secondary acoustic noise sources will be unmasked and dominate the driver's sound experience. The most important secondary noise source is the air conditioning (AC) system. Before a favorable AC sound can actively be designed, it is necessary to identify the acoustic noise sources and find means to influence them. This paper focuses on the AC outlet module which is, apart from the control unit, the only part visible to the customer. Typical acoustic spectra of flowed-through outlets show a characteristic tonality at about 3000 Hz. The knowledge of its aeroacoustic source mechanisms, the inherent implications for the customer and corrective measures especially in automobile surroundings has been limited so far. To analyze this phenomenon in detail, a simplified model outlet that shows the basic aeroacoustic behavior of a series production outlet was constructed and investigated.
Technical Paper

Safety Element out of Context - A Practical Approach

ISO 26262 is the actual standard for Functional Safety of automotive E/E (Electric/Electronic) systems. One of the challenges in the application of the standard is the distribution of safety related activities among the participants in the supply chain. In this paper, the concept of a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) development will be analyzed showing its current problematic aspects and difficulties in implementing such an approach in a concrete typical automotive development flow with different participants (e.g. from OEM, tier 1 to semiconductor supplier) in the supply chain. The discussed aspects focus on the functional safety requirements of generic hardware and software development across the supply chain where the final integration of the developed element is not known at design time and therefore an assumption based mechanism shall be used.
Technical Paper

Cockpit Module Analysis Using Poroelastic Finite Elements

Strategies for weight reduction have driven the noise treatment advanced developments with a great success considering the already mastered weight decreases observed in the last years in the automotive industry. This is typically the case for all soft trims parts. In the early 2010's a typical european B-segment car soft trims weights indeed 30 to 40% less than in the early 2000's years. The main driver behind such a gap has been to combine insulation and absorption properties on a single part while increasing the number of layers. This product-process evolution was conducted using a significant improvement in the simulation capacities. In that sense, several studies presenting very good correlation results between Transmission Loss measurements and finite elements simulations on dashboard or floor insulators were presented. One may consider that those kinds of parts have already achieved a considerable improvement in performance.
Technical Paper

End-To-End Protection for SIL3 Requirements in a FlexRay Communication System

This paper proposes end-to-end protection mechanisms to be added to a generic FlexRay network in order to achieve fault detection and integrity levels sufficient for a SIL3 fail safe communication system. The mechanisms are derived from the random hardware failure modes to be considered for communication controllers according to IEC 61508. Mechanisms provided by the FlexRay protocol are pointed out. Additional features necessary to fulfil the requirements are discussed. It is shown how to calculate the failure rate probabilities of the CRC used as a safety code with respect to EN 50159.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems on a Dual-Core Microcontroller

Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. This paper will present a concept which maps the functions of the external monitoring unit into an internal second processing core which are frequently available on modern, 32bit, monolithic, dual-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems

Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. The addition of a second microcontroller and the associated support circuitry that is required adds to the overall costs of the ECU, increases the size and creates significant system complexity.
Technical Paper

Customer Orientation in the Design Process of an Electromechanical Parking Brake - A Vehicle Manufacturer's Point of View

The ever increasing use of electronics in modern vehicles has not stopped at comfort systems such as power seats and power windows. Every conventional system that requires operating force will eventually be replaced by a self-powered version. One such item is the electromechanical parking brake of the new Audi A8, offering a host of new features. Despite the many options for new functions, it is nevertheless important to keep the driver in mind. Being engineers, one tends to overlook that not all customers share our excitement for gadgets and overly complicated technical features.
Technical Paper

Correction of Nozzle Gradient Effects in Open Jet Wind Tunnels

In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Production of Autobody Components with Hydromechanical Sheet Forming (AHU®)

The lightweight construction strategies that are demanded by the automobile industry are being employed more and more. These strategies lead to the increasing importance of the forming method and types of materials used. Especially forming technologies based on liquid media have the potential to meet these demands. These forming technologies make it possible to produce parts that have both, more complex geometries and optimized characteristics. This forming technology constitutes an intelligent process management including the significant materials parameters and behavior, the simulation and some new developments especially for the optimization of the quality and the cycle time. Hydromechanical sheet forming (AHU®) is an alternative production (forming) process, with very interesting results and developments for the manufacture of specific automobile components.
Technical Paper

Architectural Concepts for Fail-Operational Automotive Systems

The trend towards even more sophisticated driver assistance systems and growing automation of driving sets new requirements for the robustness and availability of the involved automotive systems. In case of an error, today it is still sufficient that safety related systems just fail safe or silent to prevent safety related influence of the driving stability resulting in a functional deactivation. But the reliance on passive mechanical fallbacks in which the human driver taking over control, being inevitable in such a scenario, is expected to get more and more insufficient along with a rising degree of driving automation as the driver will be given longer reaction time. The advantage of highly or even fully automated driving is that the driver can focus on other tasks than controlling the car and monitoring it’s behavior and environment.
Technical Paper

Hydromechanical Sheet Forming (AHU®) -an Innovative Process for the Production of Autobody Parts of New and Further Developed Steel Materials

Hydromechanical sheet forming (AHU®) is an innovative production process with interesting applications, possibilities and potential for the cost-effective manufacture of automobile body parts, particularly with regard to the use of new and improved steels. The targeted, component-specific use of hydro-mechanical sheet forming in automobile construction promises to deliver outstanding results from both a technological and economic point of view.
Journal Article

Timing Analysis for Hypervisor-based I/O Virtualization in Safety-Related Automotive Systems

The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Hardware Security to Secure Connected Vehicles

Advanced safety features and new services in connected cars depend on the security of the underlying vehicle functions. Due to the interconnection with the outside world and as a result of being an embedded system a modern vehicle is exposed to both, malicious activities as faced by traditional IT world systems as well as physical attacks. This introduces the need for utilizing hardware-assisted security measures to prevent both kinds of attacks. In this paper we present a survey of the different classes of hardware security devices and depict their different functional range and application. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by conducting a case study on an exemplary implementation of a function-on-demand use case. In particular, our example outlines how to apply the different hardware security approaches in practice to address real-world security topics. We conclude with an assessment of today’s hardware security devices.
Technical Paper

Reference Static and Dynamic Pressures in Automotive Wind Tunnels

The reference pressures are determined in automotive wind tunnels by measurement of pressures and pressure differences at upstream positions along the wind tunnel nozzle. For closed wall wind tunnels usually the so called nozzle method is used, where the volume flux is calculated from a pressure difference measured at the nozzle contour and a calibration factor determined in the empty test section. For open jet wind tunnels a choice is available between nozzle and plenum method. For the plenum method the reference static pressure is taken from the plenum chamber and the dynamic pressure also refers to the plenum conditions. The static reference pressure in closed wall tunnels is calculated by subtracting the dynamic pressure from the total pressure in the settling chamber. In this paper, the definitions and the differences between the two methods are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Contemplation of Nozzle Blockage in Open Jet Wind-Tunnels in View of Different ‘Q’ Determination Techniques

This paper deals with the correction of aerodynamic interference effects taking place between the nozzle of an open jet wind tunnel and a test model. In order to deduce correct aerodynamic coefficients these interference effects have to be allowed for in the determination of the correct wind tunnel speed. In open jet wind tunnels basically two different methods are used to determine the tunnel speed. One is the so-called nozzle-method, utilizing the pressure difference down the nozzle to determine the nozzle exit velocity or tunnel speed. The other procedure is the so-called plenum-method, where the pressure difference between the settling chamber and the surrounding plenum chamber of the test section is measured and used. In this paper it is shown that both methods yield a systematic error, since the velocity distribution in the nozzle differs from the velocity distribution in an unbounded stream measured at the same distance from the model.