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Technical Paper

Field Effectiveness Calculation of Integrated Safety Systems

The potential of determining the change of injury severity in the accident event taking passive as well as active measures into account at the vehicle (integral systems) are at present limited to pedestrian protective systems. Therefore, an extension of the existing methods for the application with common integral systems (front protection, side protection, etc.) is suggested. Nowadays the effectiveness of passive safety systems is determined in crash tests with very high accident severities. However, approximately 90% of real-world accidents have a lower accident severity as the required crash tests. Thus, this paper will present a method calculating the effectiveness of such an integral system based on real-world accident data. For these reasons, this paper is presenting a method for a more valid prediction of injury severity. The German In-Depth Database GIDAS allows clustering the accident event in relevant car-to-car scenarios.
Journal Article

Obtaining Diagnostic Coverage Metrics Using Rapid Prototyping of Multicore Systems

With the introduction of the ISO26262 automotive safety standard there is a burden of proof to show that the processing elements in embedded microcontroller hardware are capable of supporting a certain diagnostic coverage level, depending on the required Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). The current mechanisms used to provide actual metrics of the Built-in Self Tests (BIST) and Lock Step comparators use Register Transfer Level (RTL) simulations of the internal processing elements which force faults into individual nodes of the design and collect diagnostic coverage results. Although this mechanism is robust, it can only be performed by semiconductor suppliers and is costly. This paper describes a new solution whereby the microcontroller is synthesized into a large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a test controller on the outside.
Journal Article

A ‘Microscopic’ Structural Mechanics FE Model of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell for Quasi-Static Load Cases

This study deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of a lithium-ion pouch cell and its modelling in an explicit finite element simulation code. One can distinguish between ‘macroscopic’ and ‘microscopic’ modelling approaches. In the ‘macroscopic’ approach, one material model approximates the behaviour of multiple inner cell layers. In the ‘microscopic’ approach, which is used in the present study, all layers and their interactions are modelled separately. The cell under study is a pouch-type lithium-ion cell with a liquid electrolyte. With its cell chemistry, design, size and capacity it is usable for automotive applications and can be assembled into traction batteries. One cell sample was fully discharged and disassembled, and its components (anode, cathode, separator and pouch) were examined and measured by electron microscopy. Components were also tensile tested.
Journal Article

Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle. This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption. For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.
Journal Article

Dynamic Analysis of the Audi Valvelift System

Fully variable valve trains provide comprehensive means of adjustment in terms of variable valve timing and valve lift. The efficiency of the engine is improved in the operating range and in return, an increasing complexness of the mechanical design and control engineering must be handled. For optimization and design of these kinds of complex systems, detailed simulation models covering different physical domains, i.e. mechanics, hydraulics, electrodynamics and control are needed. Topic of this work is the variable valve train named Audi valvelift system (AVS) e.g. used in the Audi 2.8l V6 FSI engine. The idea of AVS is to use different cam lobes at different operating points. Each intake valve can be actuated by a large and a small cam. For full load, the two inlet valves are opened by the large cam profile - ideal for high charge volumes and flow speeds in the combustion chamber. Under partial load, the small cam profiles are used.
Technical Paper

Hardware Based Paravirtualization: Simplifying the Co-Hosting of Legacy Code for Mixed Criticality Applications

The increased pressure for power, space, and cost reduction in automotive applications together with the availability of high performance, automotive qualified multicore microcontrollers has lead to the ability to engineer Domain Controller ECUs that can host several separate applications in parallel. The standard automotive constraints however still apply, such as use of AUTOSAR operating system, support for legacy code, hosting OEM supplied code and the ability to determine warranty issues and responsibilities between a group of Tier 1 and Tier 2 vendors who all provide Intellectual Property to the final production ECU. Requirements for safety relevant applications add even more complexity, which in most current approaches demand a reconfiguration of all basic software layers and a major effort to redesign parts of the application code to enable co-existence on the same hardware platform. This paper outlines the conflicting requirements of hosting multiple applications.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Combining Regenerative Braking and Anti-Lock Braking for Enhanced Braking Performance and Efficiency

The anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a widespread driver assistance system which allows a short braking distance while simultaneously maintaining the stability and steerability of the car. Vehicles with electric single-wheel drive offer many possibilities of improving the energy efficiency and the braking performance during ABS braking. In this paper, two different ways of including the electric machines in the ABS are analyzed in detail: the damping of torsional drive train vibrations in combination with recuperation and the dynamic split of the braking torque, where the hydraulic braking torque is kept constant and the dynamic modulation of the braking torque is performed by the electric machines. The damping algorithm is developed on the basis of a linearized model of the drive train and the tire-road contact by using state feedback and pole placement methods. Simulation results with a detailed multi-body system show the effectiveness of the control algorithms.
Technical Paper

Cockpit Module Analysis Using Poroelastic Finite Elements

Strategies for weight reduction have driven the noise treatment advanced developments with a great success considering the already mastered weight decreases observed in the last years in the automotive industry. This is typically the case for all soft trims parts. In the early 2010's a typical european B-segment car soft trims weights indeed 30 to 40% less than in the early 2000's years. The main driver behind such a gap has been to combine insulation and absorption properties on a single part while increasing the number of layers. This product-process evolution was conducted using a significant improvement in the simulation capacities. In that sense, several studies presenting very good correlation results between Transmission Loss measurements and finite elements simulations on dashboard or floor insulators were presented. One may consider that those kinds of parts have already achieved a considerable improvement in performance.
Technical Paper

Implementing Mixed Criticality Software Integration on Multicore - A Cost Model and the Lessons Learned

The German funded project ARAMiS included work on several demonstrators one of which was a multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Here BMW and Audi intentionally implemented two different integration platforms to gain both experience and real life data on a Hypervisor based concept on one side as well as using only native AUTOSAR-based methods on the other side for later comparison. The idea was to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. During implementation and evaluation on one hand there were a lot of valuable lessons learned about multicore in conjunction with safety. On the other hand valuable information was gathered to make it finally possible to set up a cost model for estimation of potential overhead generated by different integration approaches for safety related software functions.
Technical Paper

End-To-End Protection for SIL3 Requirements in a FlexRay Communication System

This paper proposes end-to-end protection mechanisms to be added to a generic FlexRay network in order to achieve fault detection and integrity levels sufficient for a SIL3 fail safe communication system. The mechanisms are derived from the random hardware failure modes to be considered for communication controllers according to IEC 61508. Mechanisms provided by the FlexRay protocol are pointed out. Additional features necessary to fulfil the requirements are discussed. It is shown how to calculate the failure rate probabilities of the CRC used as a safety code with respect to EN 50159.
Technical Paper

Cooling Drag of Ground Vehicles and Its Interaction with Ground Simulation

Cooling drag is the increase in the total drag due to the internal flow in the cooling system. Because of the high flow resistance in the heat exchanger the momentum of the fluid needed for engine cooling usually is dissipated nearly completely. The resulting drag penalty can be approximated by the so called ram drag. For ground vehicles the cooling drag is typically lower than this approximation due to positive interference of the cooling flow with the general flow around the vehicle. Different mechanisms for the positive interference have been described in the literature. Inlet interference as well as outlet interference can result in significant reduction of the share of the cooling drag. Positive outlet interference is obtained, when the remaining kinetic energy of the cooling flow contributes significant thrust to the overall momentum balance.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems on a Dual-Core Microcontroller

Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. This paper will present a concept which maps the functions of the external monitoring unit into an internal second processing core which are frequently available on modern, 32bit, monolithic, dual-core microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Encapsulation of Software-Modules of Safety-Critical Systems

More and more high-level algorithms are emerging to improve the existing systems in a car. Often these algorithms only need a platform with a bus connection and some resources such as CPU time and memory space. These functions can easily be integrated into existing systems that have free resources. This paper describes some encapsulation techniques and mechanisms that can be used in the automotive domain. The discussion also takes into account the additional resources consumed on the microcontroller to meet these requirements and by the software to implement the encapsulation mechanisms. Overviews of some general concepts of software-architectures that provide encapsulation are also shown.
Technical Paper

Basic Single-Microcontroller Monitoring Concept for Safety Critical Systems

Electronic Control Units of safety critical systems require constant monitoring of the hardware to be able to bring the system to a safe state if any hardware defects or malfunctions are detected. This monitoring includes memory checking, peripheral checking as well as checking the main processor core. However, checking the processor core is difficult because it cannot be guaranteed that the error will be properly detected if the monitor function is running on a processing system which is malfunctioning. To circumvent this issue, several previously presented monitoring concepts (e.g. SAE#2006-01-0840) employ a second external microprocessor to communicate with the main processor to check its integrity. The addition of a second microcontroller and the associated support circuitry that is required adds to the overall costs of the ECU, increases the size and creates significant system complexity.
Technical Paper

Timing Protection in Multifunctional and Safety-Related Automotive Control Systems

With the ever increasing amount of available software processing resources in a vehicle, more and more high-level algorithms are emerging to improve the existing systems in a car. Often these algorithms only need a platform with a bus connection and some resources such as processing power and memory space. These functions are predestined to be integrated into existing systems that have free resources. This paper will examine the role of time protection in these multi-algorithm systems and describe what timing protection means and why it is required. The processing time will be partitioned to the different processing levels like interrupts, services and tasks. The problems of timing protection will be illustrated as well as its limitations. The conflict between real-time requirements and timing protection will be shown. Finally Autosar will be examined with focus on timing protection and applicability in actual development projects.
Technical Paper

Customer Orientation in the Design Process of an Electromechanical Parking Brake - A Vehicle Manufacturer's Point of View

The ever increasing use of electronics in modern vehicles has not stopped at comfort systems such as power seats and power windows. Every conventional system that requires operating force will eventually be replaced by a self-powered version. One such item is the electromechanical parking brake of the new Audi A8, offering a host of new features. Despite the many options for new functions, it is nevertheless important to keep the driver in mind. Being engineers, one tends to overlook that not all customers share our excitement for gadgets and overly complicated technical features.
Technical Paper

Correction of Nozzle Gradient Effects in Open Jet Wind Tunnels

In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Temperature Loads in Headlamps

Today's car designers ask for compact and light-weighted headlamps with several new functional features and special stylistic elements. This yields in new lighting technology such as modern free form and ellipsoid module reflectors with small dimensions and the need to use highly sophisticated materials. Both of this is sensitive to the amount of temperature and at a critical level may cause irreversible damage. Therefore, it is necessary to predict temperature loads at an early development stage in order to ensure new headlamp concepts and to shorten development time. An approach to calculate and analyze temperatures in headlamps by continuum fluid dynamic methods (CFD) is presented which can be compared and correlated to measurements carried out with infrared thermography and demonstrates the benefit of this method.
Technical Paper

Production of Autobody Components with Hydromechanical Sheet Forming (AHU®)

The lightweight construction strategies that are demanded by the automobile industry are being employed more and more. These strategies lead to the increasing importance of the forming method and types of materials used. Especially forming technologies based on liquid media have the potential to meet these demands. These forming technologies make it possible to produce parts that have both, more complex geometries and optimized characteristics. This forming technology constitutes an intelligent process management including the significant materials parameters and behavior, the simulation and some new developments especially for the optimization of the quality and the cycle time. Hydromechanical sheet forming (AHU®) is an alternative production (forming) process, with very interesting results and developments for the manufacture of specific automobile components.