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Technical Paper

Real Time Capable Pollutant Formation and Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling-HSDI Diesel Engine Simulation

Modern Diesel engines require an integrated development of combustion strategies, air management and exhaust aftertreatment. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach with the aim to support engine development activities in the virtual environment. A real-time capable engine, vehicle and control model is extended by three key features. First, a pollutant production model is embedded in a two-zone cylinder model. Second, a framework for catalytic pollutant conversion is built focusing on modern diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Third, an extended species transport model is introduced considering the transport of pollutants through the air path. The entire plant model is validated on the example of a passenger car Diesel engine. The predicted engine behavior is compared with steady-state measurements. The NO formation model is investigated for a series of steady-state and transient operating conditions.
Journal Article

Dual Fuel Engine Simulation - A Thermodynamic Consistent HiL Compatible Model

This works presents a real-time capable simulation model for dual fuel operated engines. The computational performance is reached by an optimized filling and emptying modeling approach applying tailored models for in-cylinder combustion and species transport in the gas path. The highly complex phenomena taking place during Diesel and gasoline type combustion are covered by explicit approaches supported by testbed data. The impact of the thermodynamic characteristics induced by the different fuels is described by an appropriate set of transport equations in combination with specifically prepared property databases. A thermodynamic highly accurate 6-species approach is presented. Additionally, a 3-species and a 1-species transport approach relying on the assumption of a lumped fuel are investigated regarding accuracy and computational performance. The comparison of measured and simulated pressure and temperature traces shows very good agreement.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on Different System Level Engine Simulation Models

Engine simulation can be performed using model approaches of different depths in capturing physical effects. The present paper presents a comprehensive comparison study on seven different engine models. The models range from transient 1D cycle resolved approaches to steady-state non-dimensional maps. The models are discussed in the light of key features, amount and kind of required input data, model calibration effort and predictability and application areas. The computational performance of the different models and their capabilities to capture different transient effects is investigated together with a vehicle model under real-life driving conditions. In the trade-off field of model predictability and computational performance an innovative approach on crank-angle resolved cylinder modeling turned out to be most beneficial.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hybrid Power Trains-Physical Based Modeling for Concept Design

This paper presents a comparison of a hybrid and a conventional powertrain using physical based simulation models on the system engineering level. The system engineering model comprises mechanistic sub-models of the internal combustion engine including exhaust aftertreatment devices, electric components, mechanical drivetrain, thermoregulation system and the corresponding controllers. Essential sub-models are discussed in detail and their interaction on the system level is pointed out. Special attention is paid to compile a real-time capable model by combining mean value air path and drivetrain models with a crank-angle resolved cylinder description and quasi-steady state considerations applied in electrical and cooling networks. A turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine is modeled and calibrated based on steady-state measurements. The conversion performance of a three way catalyst is compared to light-off measurements.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

FCEV Performance Assessment - Electrochemical Fuel Cell and Battery Modelling on Vehicle Level

Fuel cell electric vehicles are a promising technology to create CO2- neutral mobility. Model-based development approaches are key to reduce costs and to raise efficiencies. A model on vehicle system level is discussed that balances the need of physical depth and computational performance. The vehicle model comprises the domains of mechanics, electrics, thermodynamics, cooling and controls. Detailed models of the fuel cell and battery are presented as a part of the system model. The models apply electrochemical approaches and spatial resolutions up to 3D. The models of both components are validated via 3D reference simulations showing a seamless parameter transfer between system level and CFD-based simulations. The validity of the vehicle model, including the electrochemical components, is demonstrated by simulating the Toyota Mirai vehicle. Simulation results of an NEDC are compared to measurements.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Capable and Modular Modeling Concept for Virtual SI Engine Development

Spark Ignited (SI) combustions engines in combination with different degrees of hybridization are expected to play a major role in future vehicle propulsion. Due to the combustion principle and the related thermodynamic efficiency, it is especially challenging to meet future CO2 targets. The layout and optimization of the overall system requires novel methods in the development process which feature a seamless transition between real and virtual prototypes. Herein, engine models need to predict the entire engine operating range in steady-state and transient conditions and must respond to all relevant control inputs. In addition, the model must feature true real-time capability. This work presents a holistic and modular modeling framework, which considers all relevant processes in the complex chain of physical effects in SI combustion.