Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Modular Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs

2021-09-22
2021-26-0049
Global warming is the driver for introduction of CO2 and fuel consumption legislation worldwide. Indian truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian fuel efficiency norms. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes was completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation TOol VECTO. Indian rule makers are currently considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in India, too. Indian truck market has always been very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I has already led to a significant cost increase for emission compliance. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as the real-world operation will not be promoted by the government.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

2020-09-30
2020-01-1511
Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

2021-09-22
2021-26-0449
Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Technical Paper

Advanced CAE Methods for NVH Development of High-Speed Electric Axle

2020-09-30
2020-01-1501
The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years. With intensified development more and more attention is paid to the noise and vibration in such vehicles especially from the EDU (Electric Drive Unit). In this paper the main NVH simulation process of a high-speed E-axle up to 30,000 rpm for premium class vehicle application is presented. The high speed, high-power density and lightweight design introduces new challenges. Benchmarking of different EDUs and vehicles leads to targets which can be used at the early stage of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows the CAE methodology which can be used to verify the design and guarantee the target achievement. Using CAE both source and structure can be optimized to improve the NVH behavior.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
Journal Article

Immersion Quenching Simulation of Realistic Cylinder Head Geometry

2014-04-01
2014-01-0641
In this paper, a recently improved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for virtual prototyping of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above most of cylinder heads of internal combustion engines (ICE), is presented. The comparison between measurement data and numerical results has been carried out to simulate the real time immersion quenching cooling process of realistic cylinder head structure using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®. The Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach is used to handle the boiling flow and the heat transfer between the heated structure and the sub-cooled liquid. While for the fluid region governing equations are solved for each phase separately, only the energy equation is solved in the solid region. Heat transfer coefficients depend on the boiling regimes which are separated by the Leidenfrost temperature.
Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1219
Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Journal Article

Analysis of Thermodynamic Characteristics of Diesel Engine Emission Control Strategies Using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-1340
The paper describes a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved combustion model which was developed for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The model relies on the multi zone combustion model (MZCM) approach of Hiroyasu. The main sub-models were taken from literature and extended with additional features described in this paper. A special procedure described in a previous paper is used to identify the mechanisms of the combustion process on the basis of the measured cylinder pressure trace. Based on the identified mechanisms the present work concentrates on the analysis of the causal effects that predominantly control the combustion process and the formation of NOx and Soot. The focus lies on the changes of the thermodynamic states and the composition of the reaction zones caused by different emission control strategies.
Journal Article

Improved Comfort Analysis and Drivability Assessment by the Use of an Extended Power Train Model for Automatic Transmissions

2012-06-13
2012-01-1529
The new generation of automatic transmissions is characterized by a compact and highly efficient design. By the use of a higher overall gear ratio and lightweight components combined with optimal gear set concepts it is possible to improve significantly fuel consumption and driving dynamics. Precise and efficient real time models of the whole power train including models for complex subsystems like the automatic transmission are needed to combine real hardware with virtual models on XiL test rigs. Thereby it's possible to achieve a more efficient product development process optimized towards low development costs by less needed prototypes and shorter development times by pushing front loading in the process. In this paper a new real time model for automatic transmissions including approved models for the torque converter, the lock-up clutch and the torsional damper are introduced. At the current development stage the model can be used for comfort analysis and drivability assessment.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

2010-04-12
2010-01-0784
The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Technical Paper

New Kinematic Design Methodology and Dynamic Simulation of Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) System

2010-04-12
2010-01-1202
Mechanical variable valve systems are being increasingly used for modern combustion engines. It is typical for such systems that the cam and valve are connected via intermediate levers. Different maximum valve lifts and duration can be achieved with the same cam profile. The intermediate levers increase the system inertia and reduce the overall stiffness. Such systems offer more flexibility, but it is more complex to create optimal design compared to the conventional systems. In this paper a new kinematic design methodology for a CVVL (Continuously Variable Valve Lift) system is presented. Additionally, dynamic analysis of the valve train system is performed. The investigated valve train is completely developed and patented by OEM. The main characteristic of the CVVL system is a set of intermediate levers between the cam and the finger follower like ( 1 , 2 ). One cam drives two intake valves over a set of levers.
Technical Paper

Global Dynamic Models for XiL-based Calibration

2010-04-12
2010-01-0329
The modern power train calibration process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust aftertreatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. The introduction of predictive simulation tools that represent the complete power train can likely contribute to improving the efficiency of the calibration process using an integral model based workflow. Engine models, which are purely based on complex physical principles, are usually not capable of real-time applications, especially if the simulation is focused on transient emission optimization. Methods, structures and the realization of a global dynamic real-time model are presented in this paper, combining physical knowledge and experimental models and also static and dynamic sub-structures. Such a model, with physical a priori information embedded in the model structure, provides excellent generalization capability.
Technical Paper

Industrialization of Base Calibration Methods for ECU-functions Exemplary for Air Charge Determination

2010-04-12
2010-01-0331
Today's calibration process for ECU functions is often based on a wide variety of proprietary tools and individual expert knowledge of calibration engineers. Automatic calibration with an industrialized tool chain provides high potential to reduce testbed time, calibration time and project costs. Based on an efficient measurement procedure in combination with an offline calibration methodology the capability is validated, e.g. for calibrating the ECU function “Air Charge Determination” for SI engines. In this article the implementation, in a series production project of a major OEM, is shown. The whole workflow - which can also be applied to other calibration tasks - will be described in detail. Presented here will be how General Motors Corporation (GM) is able to speed up the calibration of the ECU functions, whilst maintaining at least the same quality of calibration as before, by the use of this tool chain.
Technical Paper

Influence of Low-Frequency Powertrain-Vibrations on Driveability-Assessments

2010-06-09
2010-01-1419
Cost- and time-efficient vehicle development is increasingly depending on the usage of adequate software tools to enhance effectiveness. The aim is a continuous integration of simulation tools and test environments within the vehicle development process in order to save time and costs. This paper introduces a procedure to reveal the cause of low-frequency powertrain vibrations and the influences on the dynamic behavior of a vehicle on a roller test bench. The affected longitudinal acceleration signal is an arbitrative criterion for the driveability assessment with AVL-DRIVE™, a well-known driveability analysis and development tool for the objective assessment concerning NVH and driveability aspects of full vehicles. These experimental studies are embedded into an approach, which describes the functional assembly of three applied test environments "road," "roller test bench" and "simulation" with according tools in order to facilitate an integrated driveability development process.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Two-Stroke SI Combustion with Simultaneous Cycle-Based Fuel Consumption Measurements

2010-09-28
2010-32-0061
Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
Technical Paper

A Cross Domain Co-Simulation Platform for the Efficient Analysis of Mechatronic Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0239
Efficient integration of mechanics and microelectronics components is nowadays a must within the automotive industry in order to minimize integration risks and support optimization of the entire system. We propose in this work a cross domain co-simulation platform for the efficient analysis of mechatronic systems. The interfacing of two state-of-the-art simulation platforms provides a direct link between the two domains at an early development stage, thus enabling the validation and optimization of the system already during modeling phase. The proposed cross-domain co-simulation is used within our TEODACS project for the analysis of the FlexRay technology. We illustrate using a drive-by-wire use case how the different architecture choices may influence the system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Engine Dynamics Under Transient Run-Up Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1454
The target of dynamic simulation is to investigate complex engine dynamic behavior in the whole speed range under different loading conditions in the most effective way during Engine Development Process (EDP). AVL has developed a method for transient run-up analysis by using the simulation tool AVL EXCITE. The main objective of this new method is the controlled speed increase by defining a speed ramp. Transient run-up analysis is of interest for different kind of analysis during the EDP, such as crankshaft dynamics and strength, low frequency vibration analysis, bracket strength and durability analysis, acoustic analysis, etc. By using this method the time required for simulations and thus the whole project duration is significantly reduced. Conventionally the speed range is divided in single speed steps and for each speed a separate transient simulation has to be performed. The number of these simulations depends on the required speed resolution.
Technical Paper

On-board Optimization of Driveability Character Depending on Driver Style by Using a New Closed Loop Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-0556
The paper describes a new methodology for a closed loop driving style detection, a vehicle driveability character evaluation and a control unit for an adaptation of the vehicle character according to the driving style. During driving the vehicle character is adapted to the driver, using the potential of modern torque based drive by wire engine control systems of gasoline and diesel engines. The methodology leads to a completely new human - vehicle interaction, the driver creates his own unique vehicle character. The vehicle owner is able to form a mass produced vehicle according to his demands. A typical drawback of globalisation, a loss of identification between owner and product can be avoided by the presented methodology. The basic structure of the evaluation and control strategies are shown as well as objective and subjective results of increased driving pleasure and higher driver identification due to increased sportiness and spontaneity up to 100%.
Technical Paper

Active Path Tracking - A Rapid Method for the Identification of Structure Borne Noise Paths in Vehicle Chassis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1470
The effective identification and control of powertrain structure borne harmonic noise is one key for achieving the desired noise pattern in a vehicle. Much work is being done in this field to refine and develop transfer path analysis techniques suitable for application at each stage of a vehicle development program. For vehicle application, transfer path analysis and source identification techniques are in use today with varying degrees of success and application complexity. Investigation tools which are fast, do not require extensive vehicle dismantling and yet provide reliable answers, are of great value to NVH and sound quality engineers. A novel Active Path Tracking (APT) method has been developed which is fast to apply and offers immediate practical confirmation of the contributions of all identified chassis transmission paths to the vehicle interior.
Technical Paper

An Update on Light Duty Diesel Technologies

2001-11-01
2001-28-0003
Light duty diesel vehicles continue to win recognition and market shares in Europe due to their convincing economy, reliability and driveability features. The diesel boom finds a fresh rationale in the CO2 emission legislation to come, however, the competitiveness of diesel cars may be impaired in future in consequence of the progression of the exhaust emission legislation and its impact on vehicle cost. This paper reviews the technologies currently pursued on the side of the engine and its subsystems, as well as the exhaust gas aftertreatment concepts required to satisfy the European legislation. An integral system approach is suggested, aiming at an optimum match of vehicle design parameters, transmission gear and the engine including aftertreatment elements and control.
X