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Journal Article

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1219
Particulate emission reduction has long been a challenge for diesel engines as the diesel diffusion combustion process can generate high levels of soot which is one of the main constituents of particulate matter. Gasoline engines use a pre-mixed combustion process which produces negligible levels of soot, so particulate emissions have not been an issue for gasoline engines, particularly with modern port fuel injected (PFI) engines which provide excellent mixture quality. Future European and US emissions standards will include more stringent particulate limits for gasoline engines to protect against increases in airborne particulate levels due to the more widespread use of gasoline direct injection (GDI). While GDI engines are typically more efficient than PFI engines, they emit higher particulate levels, but still meet the current particulate standards.
Technical Paper

Real Time Capable Pollutant Formation and Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling-HSDI Diesel Engine Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1438
Modern Diesel engines require an integrated development of combustion strategies, air management and exhaust aftertreatment. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach with the aim to support engine development activities in the virtual environment. A real-time capable engine, vehicle and control model is extended by three key features. First, a pollutant production model is embedded in a two-zone cylinder model. Second, a framework for catalytic pollutant conversion is built focusing on modern diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Third, an extended species transport model is introduced considering the transport of pollutants through the air path. The entire plant model is validated on the example of a passenger car Diesel engine. The predicted engine behavior is compared with steady-state measurements. The NO formation model is investigated for a series of steady-state and transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1296
This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Journal Article

Modeling of Catalyzed Particulate Filters - Concept Phase Simulation and Real-Time Plant Modeling on HiL

2016-04-05
2016-01-0969
The present work introduces an extended particulate filter model focusing on capabilities to cover catalytic and surface storage reactions and to serve as a virtual multi-functional reactor/separator. The model can be classified as a transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D two-channel model. The applied modeling framework offers the required modeling depth to investigate arbitrary catalytic reaction schemes and it follows the computational requirement of running in real-time. The trade-off between model complexity and computational speed is scalable. The model is validated with the help of an analytically solved reference and the model parametrization is demonstrated by simulating experimentally given temperatures of a heat-up measurement. The detailed 1D+1D model is demonstrated in a concept study comparing the impact of different spatial washcoat distributions.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

2016-11-08
2016-32-0043
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2532
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pulsating Flow on Exhaust Port Flow Coefficients

1999-03-01
1999-01-0214
Five very different exhaust ports of diesel and gasoline engines are investigated under steady and unsteady flow to determine whether their flow coefficients are sensitive to unsteady flow. Valve lift is fixed for a specific test but varied from test to test to determine whether the relationship between steady and unsteady flow is lift dependent. The pulse frequency is chosen to correspond to the blow-down phase of an engine running at approximately 6000 rpm, but the pressure drop across the port is much smaller than that present in a running engine. Air at room temperature is used as the working fluid. It is shown that unsteady flow through the five exhaust ports causes, at most, a 6% increase or a 7% decrease in flow coefficient.
Technical Paper

Model Based Assessment of Real-Driving Emissions - A Variation Study on Design and Operation Parameter

2019-01-09
2019-26-0241
In 2017 the European authorities put into effect the first part of a new certification test procedure for Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Similar tests are planned in other regions of the world, such as the upcoming China 6a/6b standards, further tightening emission limits, and also the introduction of RDE tests. Both restrictions pose challenging engineering tasks for upcoming vehicles. RDE certification tests feature significantly more demanding engine operating conditions and thus, emit more pollutants by orders of magnitude compared to known cycles like NEDC. Here, especially the reduction of NOx is a specific technical challenge, as it needs to compromise also with reduction targets on carbon dioxide. The fulfilment of both emission limits requires a widening of the focus from an isolated engine or exhaust aftertreatment view to a system engineering view involving all hardware and software domains of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

2019-09-09
2019-24-0196
Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Classification in Filtration and Regeneration-Plant Modeling for SiL and HiL Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0970
The present work describes an existing transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D particulate filter model to capture the impact of different types of particulate matter (PM) on filtration and regeneration. PM classes of arbitrary characteristics (size, composition etc.) are transported and filtered following standard mechanisms. PM deposit populations of arbitrary composition and contact states are used to describe regeneration on a micro-kinetical level. The transport class and deposit population are linked by introducing a splitting deposit matrix. Filtration and regeneration modes are compared to experimental data from literature and a brief numerical assessment on the filtration model is performed. The filter model as part of an exhaust line is used in a concept study on different coating variants. The same exhaust line model is connected to an engine thermodynamic and vehicle model. This system model is run through a random drive cycle in office simulation.
Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0988
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Supporting Passive Filter Regeneration- A Modeling Contribution on Coated Filters

2018-04-03
2018-01-0957
Wall flow particulate filters have been used as a standard exhaust aftertreatment device for many years. The interaction of particulate matter (PM) regeneration and catalytically supported reactions strongly depends on the given operating conditions. Temperature, species concentration and mass flow cause a change from advective to diffusive-controlled flow conditions and influence the rate controlling dominance of individual reactions. A transient 1D+1D model is presented considering advective and diffusive transport phenomena. The reaction scheme focuses on passive PM conversion and catalytic oxidation of NO. The model is validated with analytical references. The impact of back-diffusion is explored simulating pure advective and combined advective diffusive species transport. Rate approaches from literature are applied to investigate PM conversion at various operating conditions.
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